Skip to main content

Table 1 Participant characteristics by group including demographic, injury and intervention-related characteristics

From: Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial investigating brief psychological interventions

Characteristics Control HL CBT Total
Age: mean years (SD) 47.67(14.8) 47.83(13.2) 42.70(16.0) 46.07(14.7)
Female n (%) 21(70.0) 19(63.3) 21(70.0) 61(67.8)
BMI M (SD)a 26.31(5.5) 29.74(6.0) 28.90(9.1) 28.27(7.2)
Marital status n (%)
 Single 5(16.7) 4(13.3) 8(26.7) 17(18.9)
 Widowed 0(0.0) 1(3.3) 2(6.7) 3(3.3)
 Divorced/separated 7(23.3) 3(10.0) 9(30.0) 19(21.1)
 Married/de facto 18(60.0) 22(73.4) 11(36.6) 51(56.7)
Education n (%)
 Up to year 10 8(26.7) 5(16.7) 5(16.7) 18(20.0)
 Year 12 or equivalent 3(10.0) 4(13.3) 3(10.0) 10(11.1)
 Technical or further education 9(30.0) 3(10.0) 7(23.3) 19(21.1)
 University 10(33.3) 18(60.0) 15(50.0) 43(47.8)
Work n (%)
 Full time 16(53.3) 14(46.7) 17(56.7) 47(52.2)
 Part time 8(26.8) 8(26.7) 7(23.3) 23(25.6)
 Pensioner 4(13.3) 7(23.3) 4(13.3) 15(16.7)
 Unemployed 1(3.3) 1(3.3) 2(6.7) 4(4.4)
 Student 1(3.3) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 1(1.1)
Role in MVC
 Driver 13(43.3) 21(70.0) 18(60.00) 52(57.8)
 Passenger 5(16.7) 6(20.0) 2(6.66) 13(14.4)
 Motorbike rider 5(16.7) 0(0.0) 8(26.66) 13(14.4)
 Bicyclist 3(10.0) 3(10.0) 1(3.33) 7(7.8)
 Pedestrian 4(13.3) 0(0.0) 1(3.33) 5(5.6)
Days since MVC: M (SD) 96.77(71.8) 81.13(52.3) 68.37(41.2) 82.09(57.1)
Days in hospital: M (SD) 0.80(1.7) 1.37(4.2) 0.93(1.8) 1.03(2.8)
Injury type/location
 Neck n (%) 5(17.2) 11(36.8) 8(28.6) 24(27.6)
 Shoulder n (%) 4(13.8) 1(3.3) 2(7.1) 7(8.1)
 Arm n (%) 2(6.9) 1(3.3) 2(7.1) 5(5.7)
 Upper back n (%) 3(10.3) 4(13.3) 4(14.3) 11(12.6)
 Lower back n (%) 7(24.1) 3(10.0) 4(14.3) 14(16.1)
 Leg n (%) 6(20.8) 6(20.0) 4(14.3) 16(18.4)
 Head n (%) 0(0.0) 3(10.0) 1(3.6) 4(4.6)
 Chest/abdomen n (%) 2(6.9) 1(3.3) 3(10.7) 6(6.9)
Pain intensity M (SD)b 7.10(1.9) 6.73(2.8) 6.30(2.5) 6.71(2.4)
Perceived danger in MVC M (SD) 2.87(1.3) 3.30(1.5)* 2.37(1.1) 2.84(1.4)
 None or small: n (%) 12(40.0) 11(36.7) 16(53.3) 39(43.3)
 Moderate, great, overwhelming: n (%) 18(60.0) 19(63.3) 14(46.7) 51(56.7)
Physical Health Composite Index: M(SD) 33.77(7.3) 34.36(10.1) 36.54(9.3) 34.89(9.0)
Mental Health Composite Index: M(SD) 42.09(14.0) 41.74(15.4) 44.79(14.3) 42.88(14.5)
Treated by psychologist/psychiatrist pre-MVC
n (yes) 6(20.00) 7(23.3) 15(50.0) 28(31.1)
n (no) 24(80.00) 23(76.7) 15(50.0) 62(68.9)
Psychiatric medications pre-MVCc     
n (yes) 8(26.7) 6(20.0) 8(26.7) 22(24.4)
n (no) 22(73.3) 24(80.0) 22(73.3) 68(75.6)
Intervention-related characteristics
Telephone calls M (SD)d 2.47(1.6) 3.27(2.8) 3.23(2.6) 2.99(3.3)
Quality of rapport n (%)e     
 Poor 5(16.7) 7(23.33) 2(6.7) 14(15.6)
 Somewhat 11(36.7) 10(33.3) 10(33.3) 31(34.4)
 Excellent 14(46.7) 13(43.3) 18(60.0) 45(50.0)
Email versus postal delivery n (%)
 Email 28(93.3) 27(90.0) 29(96.7) 84(93.3)
 Postal 2(6.7) 3(10.0) 1(3.3) 6(6.7)
  1. BMI body mass index, CBT cognitive behaviour therapy, HL healthy lifestyle, M mean, MVC motor vehicle crash, SD standard deviation
  2. *HL group significantly different to CBT (P < .05)
  3. aData missing for three people for HL; total n = 87
  4. bPain intensity score from 1 to 10
  5. cMedication information was obtained with the question ‘Have you ever been prescribed medication for anxiety or depression?’
  6. dTelephone calls relates to the number of calls required by the researcher to achieve the participants’ second assessment
  7. eQuality of rapport between researcher and participant is a subjective rating by the researcher who made the telephone calls