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Table 1 Study diets

From: Dietary approaches to treat MS-related fatigue: comparing the modified Paleolithic (Wahls Elimination) and low saturated fat (Swank) diets on perceived fatigue in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

  Modified Paleolithic (Wahls Elimination Diet) Low Saturated Fat (Swank Diet)
Recommended • 2–3 cups (6 cups raw) leafy greens/day
• 2–3 cups sulfur rich vegetables/day
• 2–3 cups colorful fruits/vegetables/day
• 6–12 oz. meat, fish, poultry or game/day
• Approved fats (Extra virgin olive oil, coconut oil/butter, ghee, avocado, flax, hemp, walnut, sesame and sunflower oil, tahini, rendered animal fats and bacon grease)
• 2 cups vegetables/day
• 2 cups fruit/day (fresh preferred)
• 2 cups fat-free dairy/day
• 4 servings grain and cereal/day (whole preferred)
• 4 oz. + skinless chicken/turkey breast, white fish or shellfish/day
• 4–10 tsp. (20–50 g) unsaturated fat/day
Encouraged or Limited • 12 oz. organ meat/week
• 16 oz. omega-3 fish/week
• 1 serving seaweed, algae, nutritional yeast/day
• 1 serving fermented food/day
• Maximum 4 oz. nuts and seeds/day (soaked preferred)
• Maximum 2 tbsp. flax, hemp and/or walnut oil/day
• Flax and chia seeds to achieve 2 soft bowel movements/day
• Maximum 1 alcoholic beverage/day (women)
• Maximum 2 alcoholic beverages/day (men)
• Maximum 1 tsp. approved sweetener/day (honey, molasses, maple syrup, stevia or sugar)
• Maximum 3 egg yolks/week
• Maximum 3 cups caffeinated beverages/day
• Maximum 1 alcoholic beverage/day
• Maximum 15 g saturated fat/day
• Maximum 50 g unsaturated fat/day
Not Recommended • Dairy products (cow, goat, mare, soy milk, rice milk)
• Grains with gluten
• Gluten-free grains
• Eggs
• Legumes (beans, peas, soy, lentils, peanuts)
• Nonallowed sweeteners; approved sweeteners > 1 tsp. per day
• Nightshade vegetables/spices during first 12 weeks on diet
• White fruits/vegetables (apple, pear, white potato)
• Vegetable oils (corn, soy, canola, palm kernel, cottonseed, grapeseed), partially hydrogenated
• Monosodium glutamate
• Irradiated, deep fried, or microwaved food
• Red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, liver, kidney, heart, tongue)
• Chicken or turkey dark meat
• Rabbit, venison, elk, squab, pheasant
• Dairy products with > 1 g saturated fat per serving
• Foods containing hydrogenated fat or > 1 g saturated fat per serving such as desserts, snacks, candies, etc.
• Butter, margarine, shortening, coconut oil and other saturated and hydrogenated fats
Supplements • 1 tsp. cod liver oil
• 1000 μg methyl B12
• 1000 μg methylfolate
• 5000 IU vitamin D3a
• 1 multivitamin/mineral tablet for men aged 50+ without iron
• 1 tsp. cod liver oil
• 1000 μg methyl B12
• 1000 μg methylfolate
• 5000 IU vitamin D3a
• 1 multivitamin/mineral tablet for men aged 50+ without iron
  1. aDose adjusted based on serum vitamin D