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Table 2 Example of steps used to choose behaviour change techniques for retention interventions

From: Systematic Techniques to Enhance rEtention in Randomised controlled trials: the STEER study protocol

Barriers and enablers that require addressing Within which theoretical domains do the barriers and enablers operate? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques) could overcome the barriers and enhance the enablers?
Low awareness of the trial requirements (i.e. number of follow-up questionnaires) amongst participants. Knowledge Technique: Instruction on how to perform a behaviour
Mode: Patient Information Leaflet, recruitment consultation
Content: Explicit communication of all follow-up questionnaires (providing personalised timeline of receipt), giving examples of content
Drop out of trial as start to feel well and do not feel the trial ‘monitoring’ (which may have motivated initial participation) is required Beliefs about consequences Technique: Salience of consequences
Mode: Telephone calls by trial team at key time points
Content: Explaining importance to trial overall of staying in. Explain commitment to trial and why full commitment across the timeline will maximise validity of trial findings, thereby benefiting future patients