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Table 1 Definitions and examples of intervention functions and sources of behaviour

From: Outcome Measures in Rheumatology - Interventions for medication Adherence (OMERACT-Adherence) Core Domain Set for Trials of Interventions for Medication Adherence in Rheumatology: 5 Phase Study Protocol

Intervention functions Definition Examples
Education Increasing understanding or knowledge Group patient education meetings
Persuasion Using communication to stimulate action or induce positive or negative feelings Using motivational interviewing to encourage medication adherence
Incentivisation Creating an expectation of reward Payment to complete computer-based interactive adherence programme
Coercion Creating an expectation of punishment or cost Punishment system for a child who does not take their medications
Training Teaching skills Self-management training
Restriction Using rules to decrease the opportunity to engage in the target behaviour Restricting biologic prescriptions to those with adequate adherence
Environmental restructuring Changing the social or physical context On-screen prompts to remind rheumatologist to address medication adherence with patients
Modelling Providing an example for people to imitate or aspire to Peer educators motivating other patients
Enablement Increasing means or reducing barriers to increase capability or opportunity (excluding education and training or environmental restructuring) Alarm device to remind patients to take medications
Controlled-release medications to reduce number or frequency of medications
Sources of behaviour
 Capability The individual’s psychological or physical capacity to engage in the behaviour Psychological capability (e.g. medication knowledge)
Physical capability (e.g. medication-taking skill)
 Opportunity Factors that lie outside the individual that prompt a behaviour or make it possible Physical opportunity (e.g. cost of medication)
Social opportunity (e.g. societal acceptance of medication taking)
 Motivation All the brain processes that energise and direct behaviour Reflective motivation (e.g. analytical decision-making)
Automatic motivation (e.g. immediate emotional response to medication taking)