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Table 1 Inclusion criteria

From: Comparative Efficacy and Mechanisms of a Single-Session Pain Psychology Class in Chronic Low Back Pain: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

Inclusion criteria Rationale Sources
Axial low back pain without radicular symptoms Study restricted to low back pain A, TS/S
Pain duration ≥ 6 months As per recent NIH Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain A, TS/S
Average pain intensity ≥ 4/10 for the past month at screening visit Significant level of back pain to treat and to detect improvement A, TS/S
English fluency   A, TS/S
Men and women aged 18–70 years   A, TS/S
PCS score ≥ 20 Significant level for PC [4] TS/S
  1. A automated data gathered from REDCap Surveys, TS telephone screening, S screening visit, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale