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Table 1 Eligibility criteria in Catheter Ablation versus Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in Long Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation trial

From: Catheter Ablation versus Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in Long Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (CASA-AF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Inclusion criteria
 Age ≥ 18 years
 Long-standing persistent AF (> 12 months’ duration)
 EHRA symptom score > 2 (see Additional file 1)
 Left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 40%
 Suitable for either ablation procedure
Exclusion criteria
 Valvular heart disease with severity greater than mild
 Contraindication to anticoagulation
 Thrombus in the left atrium despite anticoagulation in therapeutic range
 Cerebrovascular accident within the previous 6 months
 Previous thoracic or cardiac surgery (including surgical interventions for AF)
 Prior left atrial catheter ablation for AF
 Unable to provide informed written consent
 Active malignancy, another severe concomitant condition or presence of implanted cardiac devices that would preclude patient undergoing study-specific procedures
 Pregnant or breastfeeding, or women of childbearing age not using a reliable contraceptive method
  1. AF Atrial fibrillation, EHRA European Heart Rhythm Association