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Table 2 Multicomponent intervention

From: A multicomponent intervention for the management of chronic pain in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Session Physical exercise Cognitive behavioral technique
Session 1 Principles and safety guidelines for physical exercises
Warming up
Neck stretching
Shoulder stretching
Arm strengthening
Wall push-up
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Participants’ expectation of the course and personal goals
Discussion: daily difficulties due to pain
Understanding of pain: pain types, theories, and factors that contribute to pain and the consequences
Pain management: healthy lifestyle and discussion
Homework: pain diary (mood monitor)
Session 2 Warming up
Neck stretching
Shoulder stretching
Arm strengthening
Wall push-up
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Understanding of the stress-pain-appraisal connection
Introducing the maintenance cycle: relationships between thought, emotion, behavior, and bodily sensation
Homework: pain and stress relationship worksheet
Session 3 Warming up
Upper body stretching
Back stretching
Arm strengthening
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Review of the maintenance cycle
Discussion: how do your thoughts, emotions, and behaviors impact your chronic pain?
Identify automatic thoughts and beliefs
Introducing unhelpful thinking habits
Challenging thoughts
Practice the thought record sheet
Homework: thought record sheet
Session 4 Warming up
Upper body stretching
Back stretching
Arm strengthening
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Acceptance of pain
Self-statement exercise
Homework: self-statement record sheet
Session 5 Warming up
Back leg raise
Side leg raise
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Mood monitoring
Strategies to cope with stress
Breathing exercise
Homework: mood thermometer worksheet
Session 6 Warming up
Back leg raise
Side leg raise
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Use of public resources
Social support
Communication skills
Muscle relaxation exercise
Homework: assertiveness worksheet
Session 7 Warming up
Hamstring stretching
Knee extension
Heel raise
Body weight squat
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Case discussion
Activity scheduling
The importance of sleep
Managing sleep problems
Homework: activity diary
Session 8 Warming up
Hamstring stretching
Knee extension
Heel raise
Body weight squat
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Case discussion: taking good care of yourself
Identifying personal strengths by reflecting on past successful coping efforts
Rewarding yourself
Grounding techniques
Homework: keeping a log of thankful events and grounding exercise
Session 9 Warming up
Neck stretching
Shoulder stretching
Upper body stretching
Back stretching
Arm strengthening
Wall push-up
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Discussion: what do you want to do but have to give up because of the pain, and what else can you do despite pain?
Goal setting
Homework: goal setting worksheet (SMART [specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time-bound] goals)
Session 10 Warming up
Hamstring stretching
Knee stretching
Back leg raise
Side leg raise
Body weight squat
Balance exercises
Cooling down
Hot and cold compress
Review of homework from previous session
Discussion: reflection on effectiveness of physical exercise on dealing with chronic pain
Reviewing concepts and skills learned in the course thus far
Exercise: relapse prevention and reviewing coping strategies by using worksheet
Take-home messages