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Table 4 Influence of attributes on willingness to participatea in final adjusted model

From: Willingness to participate in pragmatic dialysis trials: the importance of physician decisional autonomy and consent approach

  Patient Physician
Characteristic OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Autonomy
 Low 1.00 0.13 1.00 0.96
 High 0.79 (0.59, 1.07) 1.01 (.74-1.37)
Burden
 Low 1.00 0.06 1.00 0.79
 High 0.68 (0.46, 1.01)   1.04 (.75-1.44)
Consent
 Opt-in 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
 Opt-out 0.91 (0.50, 1.63) 0.50 (0.26, 0.96)
 Notification-only 0.69 (0.38, 1.27) 0.33 (0.18, 0.59)
 No-notification 0.20 (0.11, 0.36) 0.04 (0.02, 0.08)
Age (years)
 <40 1.00 0.02   
 40–49 1.51 (0.39, 5.79)  
 50–59 2.07 (0.65, 6.57)  
 60–69 4.65 (1.49, 14.50)  
 Over 70 6.05 (1.64, 22.31)  
Research Attitude Questionnaireb (per 1-point change in score) 1.05 (0.98, 1.12) 0.20   
Revised Healthcare System Distrust Scalec (per 1-point change in score) 0.89 (0.83, 0.95) <0.001   
  1. Although statistically significant in bivariate analyses, hypertension was not included in the final model since nearly all (91%) of the patients had hypertension
  2. aWillingness to participate was defined as the “definitely willing” or “probably willing” categories combined
  3. bHigher scores indicate a more favorable view of biomedical research
  4. cHigher scores indicate more distrust of the healthcare system