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Table 3 Cox regression of PICC failure (n = 121)

From: Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness for peripherally inserted central catheters in adult acute hospital patients (CASCADE): a pilot randomised controlled trial

  Univariable HR (95% CI) Multivariable HR (95% CI)
Intervention (referent (ref) SPU + SSD + CHG):
 - PAL + CHG + Tape 1.60 (0.18–14.4) 4.17 (0.36–48.4)
 - CSD + CHG 1.06 (0.23–4.83) 0.64 (0.14–2.92)
 - TA + SPU 1.04 (0.23–4.67) 1.07 (0.24–4.83)
Age (one year older) 1.02 (0.97–1.06)
Female sex (ref. male) 0.15 (0.02–1.15)* 0.10 (0.01–0.87)**
Overweight/obese (ref. other) 1.70 (0.47–6.20)
Comorbidities (ref. up to 3) 3.37 (0.89–12.8)* 4.62 (1.04–20.4)**
Skin integrity fair/poor (ref. good) 2.00 (0.43–9.28)
Skin type brown (ref. white) 0.67 (0.14–3.12)
Diagnosis  
 - oncology (ref. surgical) 1.50 (0.43–5.20)
 - medical (ref. surgical) 0.36 (0.04–3.09)
Gastrointestinal surgery (ref. other type) 0.90 (0.16–4.94)
Drain (ref. none) 2.10 (0.61–7.19)
Wound (ref. none) 0.91 (0.24–3.43)
Infection (ref. none) 1.14 (0.33–3.91)
IV therapy (ref. none) a
Antibiotic therapy (ref. none) 0.75 (0.20–2.84)
U/S guided insertion with fluoroscopy (ref. U/S guided) 2.34 (0.71–7.70)* b
Insertion on dominant side (ref. false) 1.07 (0.32–3.51)
Lumens (one more) a
Subsequent device (ref. false) 2.68 (0.80–8.92)* b
Device length (1 cm longer) 1.00 (0.91–1.11)
  1. Baseline observations were used; a = cannot be calculated; b = removed during variable selection at p ≥ 0.05; hyphen = not entered into the multivariate model
  2. PICC peripherally inserted central catheter, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, SPU simple polyurethane dressing, SSD sutureless securement device, CHG chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated discs, PAL polyurethane with absorbent lattice pad dressing, CSD combination securement dressing, TA tissue adhesive, U/S ultrasound
  3. *p value <0.20; **p value <0.05