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Table 2 Study outcomes (n = 121)

From: Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness for peripherally inserted central catheters in adult acute hospital patients (CASCADE): a pilot randomised controlled trial

  Group 1 SPU + SSD + CHG (n = 39) Group 2 PAL + CHG + Tape (n = 5) Group 3 CSD + CHG (n = 42) Group 4 TA + SPU (n = 35)
PICC failure (per patient) 4 (10%) 1 (20%) 3 (7%) 3 (9%)a
Incidence rate (95% CI)b 9.03 (3.39–24.1) 17.4 (2.45–123) 9.43 (3.04–29.2) 9.57 (3.09–29.7)
Rate ratio (95% CI) referent 1.92 (0.04–19.4) 1.04 (0.15–6.17) 1.06 (0.16–6.27)
Log-rank test (p value) referent 0.629 0.905 0.939
Catheter-days 443 58 318 313
PICC dwell time (days)c 8.94 (3.13, 20.9) 9.99 (7.23, 16.1) 5.56 (4.11, 9.97) 7.11 (4.00, 14.8)
Secondary outcomes:
 - CABSI 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (5%) 1 (3%)
 - dislodgement 4 (10%) 1 (20%) 0 (0%) 2 (6%)
 - occlusion 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%)
 - fracture 0 (0%) 1 (20%) 0 (0%) 1 (3%)
 - 1st secdev life <7d (n = 116) 26 (72%) 4 (80%) 25 (61%) 25 (74%)
 - patient satisfactiond,e 8.79 (1.67) 9.25 (1.50) 9.17 (1.48) 8.17 (2.02)
 - difficulty of removald,f 8.44 (2.14) 5.00 (4.36) 7.97 (2.38) 6.04 (2.74)
Skin complicationg 12 (30%) 1 (20%) 9(21%) 13 (36%)
Phlebitis indicators (n = 119):h
 - pain ≥2/10 2 (5%) 0 (0%) 4 (10%) 5 (14%)
 - tenderness ≥2/10 5 (13%) 0 (0%) 8 (20%) 10 (28%)
 - erythema (any) 7 (18%) 0 (0%) 8 (20%) 11 (31%)
 - swelling (any) 1 (3%) 1 (20%) 3 (7%) 9 (26%)
 - purulent discharge 0 (0%) 1 (20%) 1 (2%) 2 (6%)
 - any 11 (29%) 2 (40%) 17 (41%) 18 (51%)
Serious adverse events:
 - death 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 2 (6%)
 - positive blood culture 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (5%) 2 (6%)
 - other 2 (5%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 1 (3%)
Number of dressing changes: 72 8 52 60
 - Incidence rateb 163 139 163 191
Dressing/secdev life:     
 - days to first changec 1.71 (0.66, 3.38) 0.94 (0.41, 2.60) 1.83 (0.53, 5.45) 1.49 (0.56, 3.44)
 - daysd 3.68 (1.77) 5.21 (2.86) 3.53 (1.98) 3.41 (1.52)
Reason for change (n = 189)i:
 - routine 45 (62%) 3 (38%) 27 (53%) 19 (33%)
 - dressing lifting 19 (26%) 4 (50%) 11 (22%) 27 (47%)
 - sweating 4 (6%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (3%)
 - leakage 2 (3%) 2 (25%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%)
 - bleeding 12 (17%) 5 (62%) 11 (21%) 10 (17%)
 - unknown 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%)
 - other 18 (25%) 2 (25%) 20 (39%) 28 (48%)
  1. Number (percentage) shown unless otherwise noted
  2. SPU simple polyurethane dressing, SSD sutureless securement device, CHG chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated discs, PAL polyurethane dressing with absorbent lattice pad, CSD combination securement dressing, TA tissue adhesive, PICC peripherally inserted central catheter; CABSI catheter associated bloodstream infection, secdev securing device, VAD vascular access device
  3. aOne patient had two forms of failure (dislodgement and breakage) but was only counted once
  4. bIncidence rate per 1000 catheter-days
  5. cMedian and interquartile range shown as 25th and 75th percentiles
  6. dMean and standard deviation
  7. ePatient self-report, 0 = completely dissatisfied, …, 10 = completely satisfied;
  8. fNurse rating of difficulty when removing the product: 0 = very difficult, …, 10 = very easy; gAny of rash, blister, itchiness, skin tear, or bruising at device removal; values may not add up to total due to rounding, percentages were calculated with the number of non-missing values in the denominator
  9. hObserved at any time during study
  10. iDenominator: number of dressing changes in that group; frequencies may not add up to group size (and frequencies to 100%) due to missing data