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Table 1 Participant, PICC insertion and treatment characteristics at randomisation*

From: Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness for peripherally inserted central catheters in adult acute hospital patients (CASCADE): a pilot randomised controlled trial

  Group 1
SPU + SSD+ CHG
Group 2
PAL+ CHG + Tape
Group 3
CSD+ CHG
Group 4
TA + SPU
At recruitment (N = 124) (n = 40) (n = 5) (n = 43) (n = 36)
Age (years)a 56 (16) 63 (20) 57 (15) 54 (18)
Sex (male) 25 (62) 2 (40) 27 (63) 25 (69)
Overweight/obese (n = 102) 20 (62) 2 (50) 21 (58) 16 (53)
Skin integrity:
 - good 13 (32) 1 (20) 13 (30) 14 (39)
 - fair 21 (52) 3 (60) 26 (60) 18 (50)
 - poor 6 (15) 1 (20) 4 (9) 4 (11)
Skin type (white) 32 (80) 3 (60) 30 (70) 26 (72)
Comorbidities 31 (78) 4 (80) 32 (74) 21 (58)
 - none 3 (8) 1 (20) 4 (9) 5 (14)
 - one 6 (15) 0 (0) 7 (16) 10 (28)
 - two 6 (15) 1 (20) 7 (16) 5 (14)
 - three 6 (15) 1 (20) 6 (14) 2 (6)
 - four or more 19 (48) 2 (40) 19 (44) 14 (39)
Diagnosis:
 - medical 10 (25) 1 (20) 14 (33) 10 (28)
 - surgical emergency 9 (22) 2 (40) 11 (26) 8 (22)
 - surgical elective 8 (20) 0 (0) 6 (14) 8 (22)
 - haematology 4 (10) 1 (20) 4 (9) 7 (19)
 - oncology 5 (12) 1 (20) 3 (7) 3 (8)
 - surgical oncology 4 (10) 0 (0) 5 (12) 0 (0)
Leucocytes lowb 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Infection (any) 23 (58) 4 (80) 24 (56) 20 (56)
Antibiotic therapy: 31 (78) 5 (100) 30 (70) 28 (78)
 - intravenous 31 (78) 3 (60) 29 (67) 27 (75)
 - oral 1 (2) 3 (60) 8 (19) 4 (11)
At PICC insertion (N = 121) (n = 39) (n = 5) (n = 42) (n = 35)
PICC type (n = 120):
 - basilic 35 (92) 5 (100) 34 (81) 33 (94)
 - brachial 2 (5) 0 (0) 5 (12) 1 (3)
 - cephalic 1 (3) 0 (0) 3 (7) 1 (3)
Subsequent insertion 11 (28) 0 (0) 12 (29) 8 (23)
Inserted by:
 - nurse 36 (92) 5 (100) 35 (83) 31 (89)
 - radiographer 3 (8) 0 (0) 7 (17) 3 (9)
 - doctor 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (3)
Insertion method:
 - ultrasound 27 (69) 5 (100) 32 (76) 22 (63)
 - ultrasound, fluoroscopy 12 (31) 0 (0) 10 (24) 13 (37)
Multiple insertion attempts 5 (13) 1 (20) 3 (7) 5 (14)
Hair, before insertion: 4 (10) 0 (0) 10 (24) 8 (23)
 - if yes, clippedc 2 - 1 2
Inserted on dominant side 20 (51) 3 (60) 22 (52) 19 (54)
Number of lumens (two)d 27 (69) 1 (20) 31 (74) 23 (66)
Treatment (N = 121) (n = 39) (n = 5) (n = 42) (n = 35)
IV fluids/medicationse:
 - fluid continuous 29 (74) 4 (80) 31 (74) 31 (89)
 - normal saline flush 11 (28) 2 (40) 5 (12) 3 (9)
 - chemotherapy 3 (8) 1 (20) 3 (7) 6 (17)
 - PN (non-lipid) 6 (15) 0 (0) 8 (19) 5 (14)
 - lipids 7 (18) 0 (0) 6 (14) 4 (11)
 - blood products 11 (28) 2 (40) 7 (17) 8 (23)
 - antibiotics 31 (79) 2 (40) 28 (67) 29 (83)
 - heparin, continuous 5 (13) 0 (0) 2 (5) 5 (14)
Patient confused/agitated/drowsy (n = 119)f 1 (3) 0 (0) 6 (15) 4 (12)
Ventilated/intubated (n = 119)f 1 (3) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0)
Independently mobile (n = 119)f 22 (56) 3 (60) 25 (61) 21 (62)
Other VAD in situf 2 (5) 0 (0) 9 (21) 9 (26)
  1. *Data presented on 124 randomised patients and 121 inserted peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs); number (percentage) shown unless otherwise noted. Frequencies may not add up to group size (and frequencies to 100%) due to missing data
  2. SPU simple polyurethane dressing, SSD sutureless securement device, CHG chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated discs, PAL polyurethane with absorbent lattice pad dressing, CSD combination securement dressing, TA tissue adhesive, VAD vascular access device, PN parenteral nutrition
  3. aMean (standard deviation) shown
  4. bAbsolute value <1000 per microlitre
  5. cFrequencies shown only
  6. dOther categories omitted
  7. eReceived at any time during the study period
  8. fAt device removal