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Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in the treatment of acute cholecystitis (PEANUTS II trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Acute calculous cholecystitis, graded as mild or moderatea according to Tokyo Guidelines [11]
A. Local signs of inflammation and so forth:
  1. Murphy’s sign
  2. RUQ mass/pain/tenderness
B. Systemic signs of inflammation and so forth:
  1. Fever
  2. Elevated CRP
  3. Elevated WBC count
 C. Imaging findings suspect for acute cholecystitis
   Definite diagnosis: one positive item in A and one positive item in B
Patient will undergo cholecystectomy
 < 18 years of age
Acalculous cholecystitis
Acute calculous cholecystitis graded as severe according to Tokyo Guidelines [11]
Already receiving or needing antibiotics for a concomitant infection
Proven allergy to cefazolin
Pregnancy
Indication for ERCP on admission
  1. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, ERCP Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticocholangiography, RUQ Right upper quadrant, WBC White blood cell
  2. aThe diagnostic criteria for mild and moderate acute cholecystitis are shown in Table 1