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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria for participation

From: The effect of combining manual therapy with exercise for mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
• Male and female
• 50–65 years
• Mild COPD (60% ≤ FEV1% < 80%: COPDX)
• Stable COPD (no exacerbations in preceding 6 months)
• Non-smoking (for preceding 6 months)
• Willingness to provide written consent
• Willingness to participate in and comply with the study requirements
• Inability to complete 6-minute walking test unassisted
• History of auto-immune disease, e.g. RA or SLE that may have altered systemic inflammatory biomarkers
• Contra-indicated to thoracic spinal manipulation
o Bone density (DEXA) scores below minimum levels (T score < –2.5 and/or Z score < –1)
o Thoracic joint instability
o Acute pain on thoracic joint range of motion testing
o Advanced chest wall muscle wasting
o High level of anxiety related to receiving thoracic spinal manipulation
• Inability to understand English
• Inability to provide informed consent, e.g. people with a cognitive impairment, an intellectual disability or a mental illness
• Completed a PR program in the previous 12 months
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPDX the COPD-X Plan. Australian and New Zealand guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Version 2.45. March 2016, FEV 1 % forced expiratory volume in the 1st second percent predicted (age-matched), RA rheumatoid arthritis, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, DEXA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, PR pulmonary rehabilitation