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Table 2 Definition of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs)

From: Different strategies for mechanical VENTilation during CardioPulmonary Bypass (CPBVENT 2014): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Complication Definition
Respiratory insufficiency At least one of the following criteria:
• SpO2 < 90%
• PaO2/FiO2 < 300
• PaCO2 > 45 mmHg
• Dyspnea with respiratory distress or use of accessory muscles
Respiratory infection Evidence of new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph plus at least two of the following Johanson criteria:
• Body temperature >38 °C or <35.5 °C
• White blood cell count >12,000 mm3 or <4000 mm3
• Purulent sputum
• Presence of a new or evolving infiltrate on chest radiograph within 7 days after surgery
Pleural effusion Evidence of new hazy opacity of one
hemithorax with preserved vascular shadows on the supine radiograph, or posterior costophrenic angle blunting on a lateral chest radiograph, or evidence of a new hypo-anechoic area between visceral and parietal pleura on chest ultrasonography
Atelectasis Evidence on chest radiography of new parenchymal thickening surrounded by hyperinflated lung
Aspiration pneumonitis Inhalation of gastric content in the perioperative period with subsequent acute lung injury
Bronchospasm New expiratory wheezing responsive to treatment with bronchodilators
Pneumothorax Presence of air within the pleural space detected with chest radiograph or loss of lung sliding of gliding sign on ultrasonographic lung examination
  1. PaO2 arterial partial oxygen pressure, PaCO2 arterial partial carbon dioxide pressure, SpO 2 oxygen saturation