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Table 1 Leriche-Fontaine classification of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

From: The efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the improvement of walking distance in patients with peripheral arterial disease with intermittent claudication: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial: the TENS-PAD study

Stage 1 Asymptomatic PAD. Absence of one or several peripheral pulses with no functional repercussions
Stage 2 Symptomatic PAD. Intermittent claudication manifesting as pain on walking, signs of muscle ischaemia on effort. ‘Mild’ intermittent claudication (stage 2a) if the walking distance is greater than 200 m or ‘severe’ (stage 2b) if the walking distance is less than 200 m
Stage 3 Severe PAD pain in the lower limb appearing at rest or in decubitus, a sign of permanent tissue ischaemia
Stage 4 Presence of trophic disorders or necrosis in the lower limbs, such as ulcers or gangrene, and indication of severe ischaemia in most cases leading to amputation