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Table 1 Parameters of three different lifting-inserting MA manipulations in MA manipulation groups

From: Efficacy and safety of manual acupuncture manipulations with different frequencies on epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

MA manipulation group Frequency (Hz) Operation of MA Depth (mm) Duration (s)
Group A 1 Neutral reinforcement and reduction 2–3 60
Group B 2
Group C 3
  1. MA Manual acupuncture
  2. In neutral reinforcement and reduction, the needle is perpendicular to the skin, and the force and amplitude of the lifting-inserting displacement is uniform; the lifting-inserting distance is 2–3 mm