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Table 4 Outcome measures (means with standard deviations) in intervention and control arm participants of the NILS feasibility study at baseline, 3 and 6 months after baseline, and end of follow-up (12 months after baseline)

From: A lifestyle intervention among elderly men on active surveillance for non-aggressive prostate cancer: a randomised feasibility study with whole-grain rye and exercise

  Intervention (n = 14) Control (n = 7) Difference between groups (95% CI)
  Baseline 3 months 6 months 12 monthsa Baseline 3 months 6 months 12 months Baseline–6 months
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Difference (95% CI)
Physical fitness
Fat-free mass (kg) 65 (7) 66 (9) 65 (8) 64 (8) 64 (6) N/A 64 (6) 63 (6) -0.2 (-1.5, 1.1)
Fat mass (%) 25 (6) 24 (5) 24 (6) 23 (5) 23 (4) N/A 23 (5) 23 (5) -0.5 (-2.4, 1.5)
VO2 peak (ml O2/min/kg) 29 (7) 32 (7)b 32 (7) 33 (6)c 26 (5) N/A 27 (5) 28 (6)d 2.8 (0.1, 5.4)
Cardio-metabolic outcomes
BMI (kg/m2) 26.0 (3.4) 25.8 (3.3) 25.7 (3.4) 25.0 (3.0) 25.6 (2.5) 25.6 (2.9) 25.4 (2.6) 25.4 (2.6) -0.2 (-0.9, 0.6)
Waist circumference (cm) 102 (15) 99 (14) 100 (13) 95 (10) 98 (6) N/A 99 (5) 97 (4) -3 (-7, 1)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.3 (0.2) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.2) 1.4 (0.3) 1.3 (0.2) 1.3 (0.1) 1.4 (0.2) 1.5 (0.2) -0.0 (-0.2, 0.1)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.8 (0.7) 2.8 (0.7) 2.7 (0.7) 2.8 (0.6) 2.9 (0.6) 2.8 (0.7) 3.1 (0.7) 3.0 (0.6) -0.3 (-0.7, 0.0)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.1 (0.7) 5.1 (0.7) 5.0 (0.8) 5.2 (0.7) 5.3 (0.8) 5.3 (1.0) 5.6 (1.0) 5.6 (0.9) -0.4 (-0.8, 0.1)
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.3 (0.4) 1.3 (0.4) 1.4 (0.6) 1.3 (0.5) 1.5 (0.6) 1.4 (0.4) 1.3 (0.5) 1.2 (0.3) 0.3 (-0.1, 0.7)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.8 (0.6) 5.8 (0.4) 5.8 (0.5) 5.7 (0.4) 6.1 (0.4) 6.1 (0.3) 6.0 (0.2) 5.8 (0.3) -0.1 (-0.5, 0.3)
Insulin (mmol/L) 11.6 (6.5) 10.2 (6.5) 11.4 (7.7) 8.0 (4.1) 11.8 (6.8) 15.1 (11.9) 9.7 (2.7) 10.2 (8.1) 1.8 (-2.9, 6.5)
Prostate cancer progression
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (ng/ml) 5.4 (1.7) 5.0 (2.5) 5.4 (3.2) 5.4 (2.2) 5.0 (2.2) 4.5 (1.0) 4.9 (1.6) 4.7 (1.1) 0.2 (-2.1, 2.6)
  1. Difference between group means adjusted for baseline level of outcome (95% CI)
  2. SD standard deviation, N/A not applicable (not recorded), VO 2 peak peak oxygen consumption per unit time, BMI body mass index, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein
  3. aEnd of follow-up: n = 12 in intervention group
  4. bn = 13 (one missing due to heart problems)
  5. cn = 11
  6. dn = 6