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Table 3 Reported whole-grain rye intake by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for intervention and control group, and rye diary and physical activity for the intervention group only, as well as compliance markers for the intervention and control group, respectively – the NILS feasibility study

From: A lifestyle intervention among elderly men on active surveillance for non-aggressive prostate cancer: a randomised feasibility study with whole-grain rye and exercise

  Intervention group (n = 14) Control group (n = 7) Difference between groups (95% CI)
  Baseline 3 months 6 months 12 months Baseline 3 months 6 months 12 months Baseline–6 months
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Difference (95% CI)
Whole-grain rye intake as reported in FFQ (g/day) 61 (24) N/A 91a (33) 182b (42) 87a,d (32) 200b,d (130) 57 (26) N/A 56a (23) 90b (20) 54a,e (19) 128b,e (49)  
Compliance markers of whole-grain intake
Total plasma alkylresorcinols (nmol/L) 109 (98) 197 (87) 211 (144) 139d (76) 74 (39) 108 (66) 102 (74) 109 (55) 93 (-30;215)
C17:C21 plasma alkylresorcinols ratio 0.39 (0.19) 0.43 (0.17) 0.42 (0.20) 0.49d (0.21) 0.30 (0.10) 0.32 (0.10) 0.29 (0.05) 0.58 (0.25) 0.08 (-0.07;0.22)
  Intervention group (n = 14 for whole-grain intake and n = 12 for physical activity measures) Control group No assessment of whole-grain intake from diaries or physical activity done for the control group  
  Baseline–3 months 3–6 months 12 months       
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)         
Whole-grain rye intake as reported in diary (g/day) 146 (19) 125 (40) N/A        
  Median (P5;P95) Median (P5;P95)          
Physical activity (min/week)        
Above 70% of max - based on heart rate monitor 91 (17, 193) 66 (13, 259) N/A        
Total - based on heart rate monitor 220 (31, 338) 150 (66, 319) N/A        
Total - based on heart rate monitor + diary 285 (58, 452) 225 (77, 355) N/A        
  1. SD standard deviation, FFQ food frequency questionnaire, N/A not applicable (not recorded), P5 5th percentile, P95 95th percentile
  2. aRye bread and rye crispbread
  3. bRye bread, rye crispbread, rye breakfast cereals, rye pasta, rye kernels, rye biscuits and øllebrød
  4. dn = 12 in intervention group
  5. en = 6 in control group