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Table 3 Changes in groups A and B on subjective happiness and health-related quality of life

From: Happy Family Kitchen II: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a community-based positive psychology family intervention for subjective happiness and health-related quality of life in Hong Kong

  Time Point Groups A and B, mean (SD) β (SD) d a 95 % CI
  LL UL
Subjective happiness (4 items, 1–7 scale) Baseline 4.12 (.16)
4 weeks 4.22 (.16) .10 (.04) .20b .030 .167
12 weeks 4.26 (.16) .14 (.04) .27c .068 .209
Health-related quality of life (12 items, 0–100 scale)       
 Mental component Baseline 38.68 (1.26)
4 weeks 39.51 (1.26) .82 (.33) .17d .174 1.472
12 weeks 39.86 (1.27) 1.17 (.34) .24c .518 1.834
 Physical component Baseline 50.62 (1.04)
4 weeks 50.38 (1.04) −.24 (.28) −.06 −.784 .306
12 weeks 50.91 (1.05) .29 (.28) .07 −.263 .841
  1. LL lower limit, UL upper limit
  2. The estimates for the covariates of age, sex, and education were as follows. That of subjective happiness was β = .08, SD = .02, 95 % CI .028, .123; β = .02, SD = .07, 95 % CI −.110, .158; β = .05, SD = .02, 95 % CI .005, .092, respectively. That of mental quality of life was β = .79, SD = .19, 95 % CI .413, 1.169; β = .91, SD = .54, 95 % CI −.146, 1.954; β = .45, SD = .17, 95 % CI .113, .791, respectively. That of physical quality of life was β = −1.095, SD = .17, 95 % CI −1.420, −.767; β = 1.53, SD = .49, 95 % CI .570, 2.487; β = .51, SD = .15, 95 % CI .220, .803, respectively
  3. Note. Younger participants (aged <12 years) were excluded
  4. a Cohen’s d (small = .20; medium = .50; large = .80)
  5. b p < .01
  6. c p < .001
  7. d p < .05