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Table 2 Changes in groups A and B compared with group C in subjective happiness and health-related quality of life

From: Happy Family Kitchen II: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a community-based positive psychology family intervention for subjective happiness and health-related quality of life in Hong Kong

  Time point Groups A and B, mean (SD) Group C, mean (SD) β (SD) d a 95 % CI
   LL UL
Subjective happiness (4 items, 1–7 scale) Baseline 4.12 (.16) 4.18 (.17)
4 weeks 4.22 (.16) 4.21 (.17) .07 (.06) .08 −.044 .187
12 weeks 4.26 (.16) 4.17 (.17) .15 (.06) .16b .024 .271
Health-related quality of life (12 items, 0–100 scale)        
 Mental component Baseline 38.68 (1.26) 39.26 (1.32)
4 weeks 39.51 (1.26) 39.69 (1.32) .39 (.57) .05 −.719 1.505
12 weeks 39.86 (1.27) 39.72 (1.34) .71 (.60) .08 −.447 1.884
 Physical component Baseline 50.62 (1.04) 50.94 (1.07)
4 weeks 50.38 (1.04) 50.80 (1.07) −.10 (.48) −.01 -1.029 .835
12 weeks 50.91 (1.05) 51.27 (1.08) −.05 (.50) −.01 -1.025 .933
  1. LL lower limit, UL upper limit
  2. The estimates for the covariates of age, sex, and education were as follows. That of subjective happiness was β = .08; SD = .02; 95 % CI, .028, .123; β = .02; SD = .07; 95 % CI, −.110, .158; β = .05; SD = .02; 95 % CI, .005, .092, respectively. That of mental quality of life was β = .79; SD = .19; 95 % CI, .413, 1.169; β = .91; SD = .54; 95 % CI, −.146, 1.954; β = .45; SD = .17; 95 % CI, .113, .791, respectively. That of physical quality of life was β = −1.095; SD = .17; 95 % CI, −1.420, −.767; β = 1.53; SD = .49; 95 % CI, .570, 2.487; β = .51; SD = .15; 95 % CI, .220, .803, respectively)
  3. Note. Younger participants (aged <12 years) were excluded
  4. a Cohen’s d (small = .20; medium = .50; large = .80)
  5. b p < .05