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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and outcome measures at baseline by group

From: Happy Family Kitchen II: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a community-based positive psychology family intervention for subjective happiness and health-related quality of life in Hong Kong

  Group A (n = 419) Group B (n = 409) Group C (n = 433) p Value
Age,a,b years     .000
 12–17 30 (7.3) 50 (12.7) 27 (6.5)  
 18–34 60 (14.6) 95 (24.1) 118 (28.4)  
 35–44 195 (47.3) 147 (37.3) 186 (44.8)  
 45–54 77 (18.7) 72 (18.3) 52 (12.5)  
 55–64 24 (5.8) 24 (6.1) 23 (5.5)  
 65 or older 26 (6.3) 6 (1.5) 9 (2.2)  
Sexa,b     .030
 Male 90 (21.5) 118 (28.9) 98 (22.7)  
 Female 329 (78.5) 291 (71.1) 334 (77.3)  
Education levela,b     .000
 None 9 (2.2) 7 (1.8) 6 (1.4)  
 Primary 76 (18.6) 50 (12.7) 49 (11.8)  
 Secondary 276 (67.5) 269 (68.4) 325 (78.5)  
 Tertiary or above 48 (11.7) 67 (17.0) 34 (8.2)  
Subjective happinessc,d (4 items, 1–7 scale) 4.67 (1.10) 4.72 (1.13) 4.70 (1.13) .79
Health-related quality of lifec,d (12 items, 0–100 scale)     
 Mental component 44.77 (8.75) 44.89 (9.20) 44.70 (8.94) .96
 Physical component 47.01 (8.23) 47.65 (7.06) 47.71 (7.84) .41
  1. Note. Younger participants (aged < 12 years) were excluded
  2. a n (%)
  3. b p Values were derived from Pearson’s χ2 test
  4. c Mean (SD)
  5. d p Values were derived by analysis of variance