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Table 1 Patient and insertion characteristics at baseline (n = 160)

From: Varied flushing frequency and volume to prevent peripheral intravenous catheter failure: a pilot, factorial randomised controlled trial in adult medical-surgical hospital patients

Characteristic Total (n = 160) Flush volume Flush frequency
  3 mL (n = 80) 10 mL (n = 80) 24 h (n = 79) 6 h (n = 81)
Group size 160 (100) 80 (50) 80 (50) 79 (49) 81 (51)
Age (median, IQR) 63 (24) 63 (22) 64 (30) 63 (26) 64 (23)
Gender (male) 93 (58) 53 (66) 40 (50) 47 (59) 46 (57)
Overweight/obesea 70 (44) 33 (41) 37 (46) 33 (42) 37 (46)
Comorbidities (≥2) 110 (69) 51 (64) 59 (74) 57 (72) 53 (65)
Skin integrity (poor) 24 (15) 12 (15) 12 (15) 12 (15) 12 (15)
Infection (any type) 43 (27) 22 (28) 21 (26) 18 (23) 25 (31)
Antibiotic treatment 115 (72) 57 (71) 58 (72) 60 (76) 55 (68)
Frequency of IV txb:      
- 0 15 (11) 10 (12) 5 (6) 8 (10) 7 (9)
- 1–2 times daily 23 (17) 10 (12) 13 (16) 14 (18) 9 (11)
- 3–4 times daily 71 (54) 35 (44) 36 (45) 37 (47) 34 (42)
- ≥5 times daily 23 (17) 13 (16) 10 (12) 8 (10) 15 (19)
Inserted in dominant arm 80 (52) 37 (47) 36 (49) 36 (48) 37 (47)
Insertion point:      
- post. wrist 39 (24) 22 (28) 17 (21) 18 (23) 21 (26)
- hand 38 (24) 18 (22) 20 (25) 18 (23) 20 (25)
- post. u/l forearm 30 (19) 15 (19) 15 (19) 17 (22) 13 (16)
- ant. u/l forearm 29 (18) 15 (19) 14 (18) 14 (18) 15 (19)
- cub. fossa/ant. u arm 24 (15) 10 (12) 14 (18) 12 (15) 12 (15)
Vein quality (poor) 85 (53) 41 (51) 44 (55) 39 (49) 46 (57)
Insertion in wardc 118 (74) 59 (74) 59 (74) 59 (75) 59 (73)
Inserted by:      
- IV nurse inserter 72 (45) 36 (45) 36 (45) 39 (49) 33 (41)
- any doctor 68 (43) 35 (44) 33 (41) 35 (44) 33 (41)
- any nurse/unknown 20 (13) 9 (11) 11 (14) 5 (6) 15 (19)
Multiple insertion attempts 32 (20) 15 (19) 17 (22) 17 (22) 15 (19)
Device sized:      
- 22 gauge 76 (48) 37 (46) 39 (49) 35 (44) 41 (51)
- 20 gauge 67 (42) 33 (41) 34 (42) 35 (44) 32 (40)
Extension tubing 82 (51) 41 (51) 41 (51) 43 (54) 39 (48)
3-way tap 118 (74) 59 (74) 59 (74) 59 (75) 59 (73)
  1. n (%) shown unless otherwise indicated post. posterior, ant. anterior, cub. cubital, mL millilitres, h hours, tx treatment, uupper, l lower
  2. a Estimated
  3. b Frequencies may not add up to group size due to missing/omitted values
  4. c Versus all other
  5. d Other categories omitted