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Table 4 Predicted probabilities for any exploration of subgroup analysis and for reporting subgroup analysis using appropriate methods

From: No improvement in the reporting of clinical trial subgroup effects in high-impact general medical journals

Condition Predicted probability (any subgroup analysis) Predicted probability (subgroup analysis using appropriate methods)
Journal of publication   
British Medical Journal 0.55 (0.41, 0.69) 0.52 (0.33, 0.71)
Annals 0.57 (0.42, 0.73) 0.84 (0.63, 1.05)
Journal of the American Medical Association 0.60 (0.49, 0.70) 0.70 (0.55, 0.86)
Lancet 0.60 (0.53, 0.68) 0.76 (0.67, 0.85)
New England Journal of Medicine 0.66 (0.59, 0.73) 0.67 (0.59, 0.75)
Year of publication   
 2007 0.61 (0.54, 0.69) 0.77 (0.68, 0.87)
 2010 0.57 (0.50, 0.64) 0.71 (0.61, 0.80)
 2013–2014 0.66 (0.59, 0.72) 0.65 (0.57, 0.73)
Biostatistician as coauthor   
 No biostatistician as coauthor 0.61 (0.55, 0.68) 0.65 (0.56, 0.74)
 Biostatistician as coauthor 0.61 (0.56, 0.70) 0.73 (0.67, 0.80)
Medical condition under study   
 Obstetrics/gynecological 0.43 (0.25, 0.61) 0.71 (0.42, 1.00)
 Cardiovascular 0.61 (0.52, 0.70) 0.85 (0.75, 0.95)
Infectious disease 0.57 (0.46, 0.69) 0.58 (0.44, 0.73)
 Cancer 0.68 (0.57, 0.78) 0.56 (0.41, 0.70)
 Psychiatry/neurology 0.64 (0.51, 0.77) 0.54 (0.32, 0.76)
 Autoimmune, including DM 0.69 (0.57, 0.82) 0.67 (0.46, 0.87)
 Pulmonary/critical care 0.50 (0.32, 0.68) 0.83 (0.64, 1.00)
 Other chronic disease 0.75 (0.65, 0.85) 0.79 (0.64, 0.95)
 Other, uncategorized 0.48 (0.33, 0.64) 0.89 (0.68, 1.00)
First author’s region   
 Other 0.56 (0.44, 0.69) 0.63 (0.48, 0.78)
 North America 0.63 (0.57, 0.69) 0.70 (0.61, 0.79)
 Europe 0.62 (0.55, 0.68) 0.73 (0.65, 0.81)
Funding   
 No industry funding 0.56 (0.51, 0.62) 0.78 (0.71, 0.85)
 Industry funding 0.69 (0.62, 0.75) 0.62 (0.54, 0.69)
Significance of the primary outcome   
 Not significant 0.68 (0.62, 0.75) 0.75 (0.66, 0.84)
 Significant 0.58 (0.52, 0.63) 0.67 (0.61, 0.74)
Sample size   
 Quintile 1 0.28 (0.17, 0.38) 0.51 (0.27, 0.75)
 Quintile 2 0.54 (0.44, 0.63) 0.70 (0.56, 0.84)
 Quintile 3 0.67 (0.57, 0.77) 0.70 (0.58, 0.81)
 Quintile 4 0.72 (0.63, 0.82) 0.75 (0.66, 0.84)
 Quintile 5 0.85 (0.78, 0.93) 0.72 (0.62, 0.82)
  1. Predicted probabilities were calculated using the marginal standardization method; DM Diabetes Mellitus