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Table 1 Brief description of exercises at each station within the physiotherapy class

From: Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of outpatient physiotherapy after knee replacement for osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Station and exercise Description Task
1. Bed-based exercises Low-grade exercises including knee flexion and extension range of motion (2 × 8 repetitions), quadriceps strengthening (2 × 8 repetitions), hamstring strengthening (2 × 8 repetitions), quadriceps stretching (2 × 5 repetitions), and hamstring stretching (2 × 5 repetitions). Progressions include increasing number of repetitions, changing position, and addition of resistance bands or ankle weights Maintain/improve knee range of motion and strength, simulation of kicking/swimming
2. Getting in/out of bed Practice turning from back to side and to sitting. Then stand from sitting. Return to sitting then lying (2 × 5 repetitions). Progression includes bridging then sit to stand Practice transferring in and out of bed log rolling, and sit to stand
3. Balance tasks Balanced-based exercises including single leg stance (3 × 30 sec) and wobble board (3 × 30 sec). Progressions including increasing duration and including upper limb actions such as throwing, catching and reaching Improve static and dynamic balance. Falls prevention
4. Stair exercises Stepping up and down on stairs of varying height (3 × 8 step-ups). Progression includes using higher step Stair ascent and descent
5. Individualised exercise 1 Exercise designed specifically for individual patients Individual task
6. Walking exercises Walking practice (gait re-education). Progressions including from aided to unaided, side stepping, walking over uneven surfaces, walking carrying objects Walking. Falls prevention
7. Squatting and crouching Mini and semi-squats (3 × 8 repetitions). Squats can be performed with the assistance of chairs and gym ball. Progressions including increasing the depth of squat and crouching Squatting and crouching down
8. Cycling Static bike (1 min cycling followed by 30 sec rest and then repeat). Progressions include increasing resistance and duration of cycling Improve cardiovascular fitness and knee range of motion
9. Gardening/kneeling Replicating digging action using stepper (3 × 8 repetitions) with progression including increasing resistance of stepper. Kneeling onto cushioned or hard surfaces (3 × 8 repetitions) with progression including full kneeling and high kneeling. Activities to desensitise the knee joint such as light pressure using different textures (30–60 sec) Improve kneeling ability
10. Lunges Mini lunges (2 × 8 repetitions). Progressions include depth of lunge, lunge walking and lunge to bowling or picking up objects Improve knee strength and ability to picking objects up from floor
11. Individualised exercise 2 Exercise designed specifically for individual patients Individual task
12. Treadmill/cross-trainer Practice straight-line walking. Progressions including increase in speed and incline of treadmill, use of cross-trainer Walking on flat and uphill. Jogging
Improve cardiovascular fitness