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Table 1 Revised World Health Organization clinical staging for HIV/AIDS for adults and adolescents with confirmed HIV infection

From: TSCQ study: a randomized, controlled, open-label trial of daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or weekly chloroquine among adults on antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Clinical stage 2
 • Moderate unexplained weight loss (5–10 % of presumed or measured body weight)
 • Recurrent respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media and pharyngitis)
 • Herpes zoster
 • Angular cheilitis
 • Recurrent oral ulceration
 • Papular pruritic eruptions
 • Seborrhoeic dermatitis
 • Fungal nail infections
Clinical stage 3
 • Unexplained severe weight loss (>10 % of presumed or measured body weight)
 • Unexplained chronic diarrhoea for longer than 1 month
 • Unexplained persistent fever (above 37.5 °C intermittent or constant, for longer than 1 month)
 • Persistent oral candidiasis
 • Oral hairy leukoplakia
 • Pulmonary tuberculosis
 • Severe bacterial infections (e.g., pneumonia, empyema, pyomyositis, bone or joint infection, bacteremia, severe pelvic inflammatory disease)
 • Acute necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, gingivitis or periodontitis
 • Unexplained anemia (<8 g/dl), neutropenia (<500/mm3) and/or chronic thrombocytopenia (<50,000/mm3)
Clinical stage 4
 • HIV wasting syndrome
 • Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
 • Recurrent severe bacterial pneumonia
 • Chronic herpes simplex infection (orolabial, genital or anorectal of more than 1 month’s duration or visceral at any site)
 • Oesophageal candidiasis (or candidiasis of the trachea, bronchi or lungs)
 • Extrapulmonary tuberculosis
 • Kaposi’s sarcoma
 • Cytomegalovirus infection (retinitis or infection of other organs, excluding liver, spleen or lymph nodes)
 • Central nervous system toxoplasmosis
 • HIV encephalopathy
 • Extrapulmonary cryptococcosis including meningitis
 • Disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection
 • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
 • Candida of trachea, bronchi or lungs
 • Chronic cryptosporidiosis
 • Chronic isosporiasis
 • Disseminated mycosis (histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis)
 • Recurrent septicemia (including nontyphoidal Salmonella)
 • Lymphoma (cerebral or B-cell non-Hodgkin)
 • Invasive cervical carcinoma
 • Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis
 • Symptomatic HIV-associated nephropathy or symptomatic HIV-associated cardiomyopathy