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Table 6 Key baseline characteristics of participants for all individuals and households by study group, Ghana baseline survey

From: Evaluation of alternative school feeding models on nutrition, education, agriculture and other social outcomes in Ghana: rationale, randomised design and baseline data

  Control (C) School feeding (SF)  
Ghana SF Programme (GSFP) ‘Home-grown’ school feeding (HGSF) Main evaluation comparisons*
  All HGSF+ HGSF++ Ha: [A − B] ! = 0, Pr(|T| > |t|)
Characteristic n Estimate n Estimate n Estimate n Estimate n Estimate [SF − C] [GSFP − HGSF] [HGSF+ − HGSF++]
Outcomes
 Absentee days over last 7 days 6217 0.130 [0.678] 2754 0.121 [0.672] 1765 0.117 [0.613] 855 0.186 [0.790] 843 0.130 [0.685] 0.327 0.0745 0.1227
 Age started school (aged 5–15 years) 3907 7.18 [1.95] 1734 7.16 [1.92] 1105 7.36 [1.88] 560 7.18 [2.05] 508 6.86 [2.07] 0.5276 0.0001 0.0123
 Number of times repeated a class 6067 0.23 [0.62] 2677 0.21 [0.57] 1726 0.25 [0.62] 825 0.26 [0.67] 839 0.22 [0.72] 0.0356 0.7323 0.2238
 Maths test score 5826 2.51 [2.79] 2588 2.31 [2.70] 1646 2.54 [2.75] 801 2.91 [3.04] 791 2.74 [2.87] <0.001 0.004 0.2756
 Literacy test score 5849 3.06 [3.69] 2596 2.75 [3.50] 1661 3.05 [3.56] 804 3.58 [4.07] 788 3.57 [4.06] <0.001 <0.001 0.9423
 Raven’s test score 5830 4.46 [2.74] 2590 4.32 [2.75] 1650 4.52 [2.69] 800 4.84 [2.70] 790 4.41 [2.81] <0.001 0.2448 0.002
 Digit span score 5883 4.78 [2.40] 2615 4.56 [2.40] 1664 4.89 [2.37] 809 5.13 [2.39] 795 4.89 [2.39] <0.001 0.152 0.0487
 Height-for-age (5–15 years) z-score 5232 −0.925 [1.35] 2303 −0.943 [1.43] 1494 −0.963 [1.29] 730 −0.888 [1.24] 705 −0.827 [1.31] 0.3999 0.0268 0.3666
 BMI-for-age (5–15 years) z-score 5232 −0.592 [0.924] 2303 −0.575 [0.964] 1494 0.636 [0.895] 730 −0.574 [0.857] 705 −0.570 [0.912] 0.2542 0.051 0.9284
 Haemoglobin levels (g/dL) 714 11.3 [1.34] 422 11.3 [1.35] 169 11.3 [1.36] 32 11.4 [1.47] 91 11.3 [1.21] 0.9088 0.8764 0.8469
 Total maize production volumes (kg) 2626 787 [1751] 1163 864 [2034] 722 807 [1596] 375 590 [1248] 366 702 [1478] 0.0439 0.0376 0.2646
 Total rice production volumes (kg) 2626 141 [652] 1163 149 [700] 722 148 [645] 375 137 [678] 366 111 [449] 0.6003 0.4551 0.5297
 Total maize sale volumes (kg) 2626 393 [1196] 1163 432 [1261] 722 446 [1337] 375 270 [880] 366 292 [907] 0.1381 0.0057 0.7435
 Total rice sale volumes (kg) 2626 84 [484] 1163 94 [583] 722 87 [413] 375 70 [397] 366 61 [327] 0.3509 0.2895 0.7286
Other variables
 Age (for 15 years and younger) 8407 7.5 [4.2] 3153 5.8 [9.0] 1918 6.2 [9.5] 942 6.2 [9.3] 917 6.1 [9.9] 0.057 0.847 0.8071
 Is a girl? (for 15 years and younger) 8407 0.48 [0.5] 3799 0.48 [0.50] 2318 0.49 [0.50] 1167 0.47 [0.50] 1123 0.51 [0.5] 0.4933 0.9377 0.0989
 Birth order (for all children) 8533 2.9 [2.0] 3791 2.9 [2.1] 2397 3.0 [2.0] 1189 3.0 [2.0] 1156 2.9 [1.9] 0.8275 0.021 0.2204
 Is enrolled in school? (for 5–15 years) 6178 0.92 [0.27] 2755 0.91 [0.29] 1737 0.92 [0.26] 852 0.94 [0.01] 834 0.91 [0.29] 0.0375 0.9395 0.0065
 Receives free school meals? 6280 0.19 [0.39] 2809 0.17 [0.38] 1768 0.23 [0.42] 860 0.13 [0.34] 843 0.24 [0.43] 0.0001 0.0055 <0.001
 Distance to nearest school 6343 0.47 [3.24] 2765 0.45 [3.14] 1808 0.58 [4.34] 891 0.21 [0.85] 879 0.59 [2.29] 0.597 0.0992 <0.001
 Time to school 6333 21.4 [45.6] 2778 19.6 [31.3] 1796 18.8 [32.5] 888 17.6 [22.7] 871 35.9 [95.1] 0.007 <0.001 <0.001
 Total education expenditure 5635 23923 [35642] 2410 19250 [30878] 1640 27089 [37899] 789 25732 [37096] 796 29752 [40791] <0.001 0.6249 0.0403
 Mother’s education level (5–15 years) 5096 5.9 [9.4] 2290 5.7 [9.1] 1437 6.1 [9.6] 690 6.1 [9.4] 679 6.0 [9.8] 0.1946 0.8518 0.7608
 Education level of head of household 2626 1.4 [2.6] 1163 1.4 [2.7] 1463 1.3 [2.5] 375 1.6 [2.7] 366 1.3 [2.2] 0.9393 0.2147 0.1344
 Household size 2626 5.7 [2.4] 1163 5.7 [2.4] 722 5.8 [2.4] 375 5.7 [2.3] 366 5.6 [2.3] 0.8747 0.1774 0.5572
 Per-capita expenditure quintile 2625 3.1 [1.4] 1162 3.2 [1.4] 722 2.9 [1.4] 375 3.3 [1.4] 366 3.1 [1.4] 0.1763 0.0008 0.2199
 Household expenditure on food 2626 3473 [2187] 1163 3483 [2213] 722 3370 [2254] 375 3502 [1846] 366 3608 [2289] 0.815 0.1041 0.4874
 Household expenditure on health 2626 93.5 [112] 1163 97.7 [116] 722 88.7 [107] 375 93.3 [108] 366 90.0 [112] 0.0894 0.595 0.6768
 Household expenditure on education 2626 214 [333] 1163 204 [328] 722 195 [311] 375 233 [340] 366 260 [374] 0.1926 0.0034 0.3013
 Household expenditure on transport 2626 317 [415] 1163 315 [407] 722 297 [393] 375 352 [447] 366 326 [447] 0.8157 0.0607 0.4316
 % share of HH expenditure spent on food 2626 59.8 [15.8] 1163 59.6 [16.4] 722 60.3 [15.4] 375 58.0 [14.0] 366 61.1 [16.0] 0.5613 0.3073 0.0049
  1. Estimates are expressed as mean and standard deviation
  2. BMI body mass index, HH household. * T-test statistics for comparisons across treatment arms