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Table 4 Estimated marginal means, percentages, sample sizes, standard deviations and p values for secondary outcomes

From: A theory-based online health behaviour intervention for new university students (U@Uni:LifeGuide): results from a repeat randomized controlled trial

  1-month follow-up    6-month follow-up   
Variable Control Intervention    Control Intervention   
  % or mean SD n % or mean SD n p d (odds ratio) % or mean SD n % or mean SD n P d (odds ratio)
Fruit and vegetable intake
 Portions per day 3.63 1.84 691 3.84 1.95 595 0.041 0.11         
Physical activity
 Metabolic equivalent of task 3501.75 2348.35 690 3515.20 2348.97 579 0.919 0.01         
Alcohol consumption
 Units in the last 7 days 12.06 12.01 682 11.45 11.78 578 0.364 0.05         
 Number of days binge drinking in previous 7 days (drinkers only) 1.02 0.90 508 0.98 1.03 421 0.547 0.004 0.99 0.95 564 0.97 0.87 473 0.674 0.02
 Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test          9.32 4.94 504 9.40 4.90 416 0.809 −0.02
 Biochemical marker of alcohol consumption (fatty acid ethyl esters)          7.29 7.85 70 5.00 4.33 63 0.038 0.35
Smoking
 Has smoked 51.90 684 52.50 581 0.876 (1.01) 54.72 795 53.57 685 0.933 (0.96)
 Smoked since attending university 27.34 684 26.16 581 0.723 −0.02 (0.97) 37.16 783 30.70 671 0.016 0.11 (0.81)
 Current smoker 11.84 684 11.36 581 0.390 −0.03 (0.96)         
 Cigarettes smoked per week (smokers only) 16.21 20.11 81 17.02 25.87 66 0.832 −0.04 19.87 28.19 74 18.30 21.75 46 0.749 0.06
 Smoking marker (cotinine)          1.02 6.40 70 0.38 1.49 63 0.460 0.13
 Smoking marker (nicotine)          2.52 11.94 70 2.91 17.96 63 0.867 0.03
Other outcomes
 EQ-5D-3 L
 Health index scores from EQ-5D-3 L (visual analogue scale) 0.92 0.26 663 0.91 0.24 559 0.907 −0.04 0.91 0.28 810 0.90 0.26 702 0.262 −0.04
 Health index scores from EQ-5D-3 L (time trade off) 0.93 0.26 663 0.93 0.24 559 0.873 0.00 0.93 0.28 810 0.92 0.26 702 0.208 −0.04
 EQ-5D-3 L visual analogue scale 78.61 13.97 669 79.47 14.07 569 0.285 0.06 79.16 12.98 763 78.98 13.07 657 0.791 −0.01
 Recreational drug use
 Have taken recreational drugs (single sample count method) 4.84 8.83 708 4.00 9.61 608 0.450 0.11 23.18 11.18 586 21.78 12.00 493 0.556 0.04
 Have taken recreational drugs (biochemical marker)          55.71 - 70 52.38 63 0.717 (0.88)
 Body mass index
 Self-report 21.63 1.70 591 21.52 1.77 491 0.302 0.06 22.00 2.38 698 21.84 2.44 596 0.231 0.07
 Objective          21.79 2.54 70 22.43 3.49 63 0.255 −0.20
 Health service usage
 Times visited general practitioner in previous 6 months          1.48 2.31 532 1.48 0.11 449 0.973 0.00
 General practitioner offered alcohol intervention          1.90 9 0.80 - 3 0.156 0.36
 No alcohol intervention offered          98.1 463 99.2 - 394   (1.92)
 Attended alcohol intervention          66.7 2 0.00 - 0 0.889
 Did not attend alcohol intervention          33.3 4 100 - 2  
 Times visited accident and emergency department          0.13 0.46 532 0.11 0.42 446 0.439 0.05
 Times admitted to accident and emergency department          0.15 0.38 57 0.08 0.32 42 0.319 0.20
 Times required an ambulance          0.04 0.45 503 0.05 0.42 435 0.683 −0.02
 Times admitted to hospital          0.05 0.23 525 0.05 0.21 444 0.828 0.00
 Elective admissions to hospital          0.95 0.69 21 0.84 0.68 18 0.637 0.16
 Non-elective admissions to hospital          0.36 1.88 210 0.37 0.62 17 0.964 −0.01
 Other times visited hospital (not including above)          0.34 0.91 523 0.32 1.05 439 0.877 0.02
Social cognition variables
 Fruit and vegetables
 Affective attitude 5.96 1.28 658 5.94 1.18 560 0.823 −0.02 6.03 1.17 545 6.07 1.28 454 0.607 0.03
 Cognitive attitude 6.78 0.77 656 6.75 0.71 559 0.380 −0.04 6.82 0.70 543 6.77 0.64 454 0.212 −0.07
 Subjective norm 6.14 1.28 658 6.13 1.18 559 0.885 −0.01 6.26 1.17 545 6.21 1.07 455 0.495 −0.04
 Descriptive norm 2.67 1.28 659 2.63 1.18 561 0.557 −0.03 2.72 1.17 545 2.69 1.28 455 0.644 −0.02
 Self-efficacy 5.63 1.54 658 5.50 1.66 561 0.170 −0.08 5.83 1.40 545 5.57 1.49 456 0.005 −0.18
 Perceived control 5.43 1.54 659 5.42 1.66 560 0.953 −0.01 5.63 1.63 544 5.56 1.49 456 0.479 −0.04
 Intention 4.68 1.79 657 4.79 1.65 558 0.235 0.06 4.93 1.63 540 4.96 1.71 455 0.843 0.02
 Planning 5.00 1.79 657 4.93 1.66 560 0.564 −0.04 5.14 1.63 544 5.14 1.71 455 0.998 0.00
 Physical activity
 Affective attitude 5.65 1.54 659 5.61 1.66 560 0.680 −0.03 5.73 1.40 545 5.76 1.49 454 0.742 0.02
 Cognitive attitude 6.80 0.77 658 6.77 0.71 561 0.539 −0.04 6.84 0.70 544 6.77 0.64 454 0.105 −0.10
 Subjective norm 6.07 1.28 659 6.09 1.18 560 0.821 0.02 6.20 1.17 545 6.21 1.07 455 0.894 0.01
 Descriptive norm 3.68 1.28 659 3.78 1.42 561 0.202 0.07 3.86 1.40 544 3.83 1.28 454 0.706 −0.02
 Self-efficacy 5.68 1.54 658 5.57 1.42 561 0.198 −0.07 5.88 1.40 545 5.71 1.49 456 0.049 −0.12
 Perceived control 5.60 1.54 658 5.59 1.66 561 0.886 −0.01 5.73 1.63 545 5.65 1.49 455 0.441 −0.05
 Intention 5.34 1.80 660 5.43 1.66 560 0.364 0.05 5.32 1.87 545 5.47 1.71 455 0.158 0.08
 Planning 4.98 1.80 658 5.00 1.89 560 0.902 0.01 5.22 1.87 544 5.19 1.71 455 0.788 −0.02
 Binge drinking
 Affective attitude 3.17 1.80 659 3.08 1.89 560 0.379 0.05 3.02 1.87 545 3.03 1.71 455 0.944 −0.01
 Cognitive attitude 1.82 1.03 658 1.68 0.95 561 0.019 0.14 1.68 0.93 543 1.68 1.07 454 0.998 0.00
 Subjective norm 2.43 1.54 659 2.33 1.42 560 0.275 0.07 2.36 1.40 543 2.40 1.49 455 0.694 −0.03
 Descriptive norm 5.63 1.28 659 5.60 1.42 561 0.616 0.02 5.57 1.17 545 5.71 1.28 455 0.071 −0.11
 Self-efficacy 6.13 1.28 658 6.16 1.42 561 0.783 −0.02 6.20 1.40 545 6.15 1.28 456 0.574 0.04
 Perceived control 5.68 1.80 659 5.76 1.66 561 0.400 −0.05 5.82 1.63 543 5.89 1.71 455 0.461 −0.04
 Intention 3.38 1.80 658 3.24 1.89 558 0.210 0.08 3.28 1.86 543 3.19 1.92 455 0.434 0.05
 Planning 4.87 2.05 657 4.79 2.13 560 0.478 −0.04 4.99 2.10 543 4.84 2.13 455 0.244 −0.07
 Smoking
 Affective attitude 1.55 1.28 658 1.54 1.18 560 0.940 0.01 1.32 0.70 537 1.35 0.69 525 0.491 −0.04
 Cognitive attitude 1.27 0.77 658 1.26 0.71 559 0.648 0.01 1.59 1.17 545 1.53 1.28 455 0.398 0.05
 Subjective norm 1.31 0.77 658 1.30 0.71 559 0.854 0.01 1.35 0.93 545 1.35 0.85 455 0.940 0.00
 Descriptive norm 4.01 1.54 658 3.98 1.42 561 0.709 0.02 4.04 1.40 545 4.16 1.49 455 0.169 −0.08
 Self-efficacy 6.53 2.05 658 6.52 1.18 561 0.899 0.01 6.48 1.17 545 6.55 1.28 456 0.384 −0.06
 Perceived control 5.46 2.05 659 5.33 1.89 561 0.272 0.07 5.52 1.86 543 5.54 1.92 454 0.864 −0.01
 Intention 1.56 1.28 658 1.58 1.42 558 0.826 −0.01 1.67 1.40 545 1.59 1.28 455 0.322 0.06
 Planning 5.86 2.05 658 5.79 1.89 560 0.524 −0.04 5.81 1.86 542 5.69 1.92 454 0.342 −0.06