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Table 4 Summary of outcome measures

From: The effects of a strength and neuromuscular exercise programme for the lower extremity on knee load, pain and function in obese children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Primary outcome parameters

Instrument for data collection

 Overall peak external frontal knee moment and impulse

3D gait analysis during walking

Secondary outcome parameters

 Frontal and sagittal kinematics and kinetics for hip, knee and ankle joints

3D gait analysis during walking and stair climbing

 KOOS subscales (Austrian-German version)

Knee function in daily living (ADL)

Knee function in sport and recreation (Sport/Rec)

Knee-related quality of life (QOL)

Knee pain and other symptoms

 Changes of function and strength of the targeted muscle groups

Physical examination/orthopaedic status

 Adherence to training programme

Percentage of completed sessions among the number of intended exercise sessions

 Ratings of knee-related pain

7-point ordinal scale (followed for the duration of the intervention)

Other outcome parameters

 Cardiopulmonary testing

Symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer


Anthropometric measurements

 Body composition

Bioimpedance analysis

 Nutritional status

24-hour recall method (daily, self-reported consumption of food-intake)

 Psychological status

AD-EVA test inventory, Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL/4-18 )

 Blood samples

Growth hormones (GH, IGFBP3, AP) and inflammation (procalcin, TGF-α, IL-8) from venous blood samples

All measures will be recorded at baseline and follow-up unless stated otherwise

  1. 3D three-dimensional, ALS, CRP C-reactive protein, GH growth hormone, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor-1, IGFB3 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, IL-6 interleukin-6, KOOS Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, TGF Transforming growth factor, AP Anterior pituitary hormone