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Table 2 Study recruitment: effectiveness, setting, strategies employed, and barriers reported

From: Recruitment and retention in obesity prevention and treatment trials targeting minority or low-income children: a review of the clinical trials registration database

Reference Sample size Reach (% capture) Formative research Recruitment duration Recruitment setting Recruitment strategies Recruitment barriers
Hasson et al. [14] 58 families 11.6 Yes
Davis et al. [15] 68 families 17.0 Yes
Ventura et al. [16]
Azevedo et al. [17] 252 families Community
Berry et al. [1820] 358 parent–child dyads 27.5 Yes 2 years 9 months School 1) Meeting with school staff
2) Printed study information
3) Presentation to children and parents
4) Printed study contact information
5) Friendly manner
Elizondo-Montemayor et al. [21] 125 caregiver–child dyads 9.6 School
Wang et al. [22, 23] 249 children 37.1 Yes School
Black et al. [24, 25] 235 children 1 year 10 months School
Hurley et al. [26]
Witherspoon et al. [27]
Weigensberg et al. [28] 35 adolescents 62.5 Yes Pediatric clinics, health fairs School vacation
Wilson et al. 2011 [2931] 1422 children 91.0 Yes School and home 1) Presentation to parents and students
2) Home visit
Naar-King et al. [32] 49 families 69.0 Yes An urban adolescent medicine clinic 1) Time constraint;
2) Lack of interest
Ritchie et al. [33] 235 families Yes 3 years School, community 1) Announcements 1) Transportation;
Sharma et al. [34] 2) Incentives 2) Competing demands;
3) Distrust;
Eisenmann et al. [35] 434 families 57.0 School
Barkin et al. [36] 106 parent–child dyads 22.2 4–5 months Cooperating community agencies such as social service agencies, pediatric clinics, community centers 1) Printed study information 1) Transportation;
2) Radio 2) On-site childcare
3) Participant referral
Burnet et al. [37] 29 families Yes Community, pediatric clinics Printed study information
Davis et al. [3840] 222 children 26.4 % 2 years 8 months School Printed study information
Tkacz et al. [41]
Petty et al. [42]
Madsen et al. [43] 156 children, six schools 11.7 % , 50 %, 89.7 % Yes School Presentation to school staff Change in school administration
Wickham et al. [44] 165 adolescents 2 years 4 months Comprehensive weight management program Healthcare provider referral
Bean et al. [45] 186 adolescents Yes 2 years 11 months Health care, school, community Healthcare provider referral
Wysocki et al. [46, 47] 119 families 31.3 % Yes 1) Transportation;
2) Time constraint
Wysocki et al. [4850] 104 families 23.9 % Yes Pediatric diabetes centers 1) Mailed invitation letter Funding limitation
2) Phone call
Ellis et al. [51, 52] 127 adolescents 69.8 % Yes Endocrinology clinic
Story et al. [2] Phase I: 35–61 girls; Phase I : not reported; Yes Phase I: 2.5–4 monthsa; Community churches, community centers, community events and school 1) Active placebo study group Phase I:
Rochon et al. [53] Phase II: 261–303 girls Phase II: 48.1 %-65.4 % Phase II: 17 months 2) Media adverts, stories, interviews 1) No-treatment control group;
Kumanyika et al. [54, 55] 3) Flyers to homes 2) Parents interested in both child health and self-esteem programs, while children interested in fun programs;
Klesges et al. [56, 57] 4) Presentations to families at community and school 3) Blood draw.
Robinson et al. [58, 59] 5) Separate consent for blood draw, which was not required for participation Phase II:
Stockton et al. [60] 1) School vacation
2) Study staff issues
3) Study site locations
Natale et al. [61] 1105 children Child care center
Nansel et al. [62] 390 families 69.1 %   Pediatric endocrinology clinics
Janicke et al. [63] 93 parent–child dyads 83.8 % Yes   Community and school 1) Printed study information
Follansbee-Junger et al. [64] 2) Community presentations
Radcliff et al. [65] 3) Toll-free line
  1. a11.7 % of screened schools, 50 % of eligible schools at principals’ meeting, 89.7 % of children