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Table 3 Glucose-related biomarkers at baseline and after the 6-week intervention

From: Antihyperglycemic effect of short-term arginyl-fructose supplementation in subjects with prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

  Placebo (n = 24) Test (n = 25)
Hemoglobin A1c (%)a   
 0 week 6.4 ± 0.16 6.4 ± 0.14
 6 week 6.2 ± 0.14*** 6.1 ± 0.13**
Insulin (uU/mL)a   
 0 minutes   
  0 week 9.5 ± 0.77 11.1 ± 1.03
  6 week 9.2 ± 0.68 12.4 ± 2.49
 30 minutes   
  0 week 30.5 ± 3.93 43.7 ± 8.26
  6 week 21.3 ± 3.03* 41.3 ± 8.60
 60 minutes   
  0 week 44.5 ± 6.35 58.5 ± 9.34
  6 week 34.9 ± 5.06* 46.3 ± 8.21*
 120 minutes   
  0 week 46.7 ± 7.65 56.1 ± 10.58
  6 week 36.3 ± 6.49 42.1 ± 7.46
Insulin AUC (uU/mL per hour)a   
 0 week 74.3 ± 8.66 96.6 ± 13.98
 6 week 57.3 ± 7.72** 79.5 ± 11.74*
C-peptide (ng/mL)a   
 0 minutes   
  0 week 2.1 ± 0.16 2.5 ± 0.18
  6 week 2.1 ± 0.15 2.7 ± 0.33
 30 minutes   
  0 week 5.1 ± 0.38 6.0 ± 0.60
  6 week 4.4 ± 0.39* 5.9 ± 0.71
 60 minutes   
  0 week 7.5 ± 0.49 8.6 ± 0.75
  6 week 6.8 ± 0.47* 8.0 ± 0.68
 120 minutes   
  0 week 9.4 ± 0.67 9.1 ± 0.69
  6 week 9.2 ± 0.65 8.4 ± 0.64
C-peptide AUC (ng/mL)a   
 0 week 13.4 ± 0.79 14.6 ± 1.10
 6 week 12.4 ± 0.83* 13.8 ± 1.01
  1. Data are shown as mean ± SEM
  2. p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 compared to 0 week, tested by paired t-test
  3. aAnalyzed after log transformation
  4. AUC Area under the curve