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Table 3 Dindo–Clavien definition of postoperative complications [38]

From: Postoperative negative-pressure incision therapy following open colorectal surgery (Poniy): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Grade Definition
I Any deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention
Allowed therapeutic regimens are: drugs as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgesics, diuretics, electrolytes and physiotherapy
This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside
II Requiring pharmacological treatment with drugs other than those allowed for grade I complications
Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition are also included
III Requiring surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention
IIIa Intervention, not under general anesthesia
IIIb Intervention, under general anesthesia
IV Life-threatening complication (including central nervous system complications)a requiring intermediate care or intensive care unit management
IVa Single organ dysfunction (including dialysis)
IVb Multiorgan dysfunction
V Death of a patient
Suffix ‘d’ If the patient suffers from a complication at the time of discharge (see examples in Table 1), the suffix ‘d’ (for ‘disability’) is added to the respective grade of complication. This label indicates the need for a follow-up to fully evaluate the complication.
  1. aBrain haemorrhage, ischaemic stroke, subarachnoidal bleeding, but excluding transient ischaemic attacks