Outcome

SC (n = 19)

FB (n = 23)

ONS (n = 21)

SC versus FB

SC versus ONS

FB versus ONS


  
(MD)

[95 % CI]

(MD)

[95 % CI]

(MD)

[95 % CI]


Weight change (kg)

Weighed (n = 19)

Weighed (n = 23)

Weighed n = 21)

−1.4

[−3.6, 0.73]

−1.4

[−3.3, 0.51]
  
−0.57 (3.5)

0.87 (3.4)

0.84 (2.5)
      
BMI change (kg/m^{2})

−0.16 (1.3)

0.33 (1.3)

0.34 (1.1)

−0.49

[−1.3, 0.35]

−0.50

[−1.3, 0.27]
  
MAC change (cm)

Measured(n = 13)

Measured (n = 19)

Measured(n = 1)

−0.67

[−1.68, 0.34]

−0.82

[−2.2, 0.59]
  
−0.96 (1.6)

−0.29 (1.2)

−0.14 (2.1)
      
TSF change (mm)

Measured(n = 11)

Measured (n = 16)

Measured(n = 1)

0.03

[−2.2, 2.26]

−0.97

[−3.8, 1.86]
  
0.68 (2.6)

0.66 (2.9)

1.65 (4.0)
      
MAMC change

n = 11

n = 15

n = 14

−0.68

[−1.58, 0.22]

−0.71

[−1.90, 0.33]
  
−1.08 (1.1)

−0.40 (1.1)

−0.29 (1.5)
      
HgD change (kg)

Measured (n = 6)

Measured (n = 11)

Measured(n = 6)

2.2

[−0.50, 4.9]

2.2

[−0.61, 4.9]
  
1.8 (2.2)

−0.42 (2.6)

−0.35 (2.1)
      
Change in energy intake (kcal)

Available(n = 17)

Available (n = 23)

Available(n = 2)

−255

[−401, −109]

−400

[−577, −223]

−145

[−319,29.1]

−50.9 (183)

204 (251)

349 (319)
      
Change in protein intake (g)

Available(n = 17)

Available (n = 23)

Available(n = 2)
 
Mann–Whitney
 
Mann–Whitney
  
1.0 (−3.5  4.5)

3.0 (−10  6)

9.0 (2–26.5)
 
U = 175
 
U = 68.5
  
Change in fluid intake (ml)

Available(n = 17)

Available (n = 23)

Available(n = 2)

−79

[−219, 60.9]

−104

[−242, 34.5]
  
120 (223)

199 (210)

224 (196)
      
 MD mean difference, SC standard care, FB foodbased, ONS oral nutritional supplements, BMI body mass index, MAC midupper arm circumference, TSF tricep skinfold thickness, MAMC midarm muscle circumference, HgD handgrip dynamometer
 Normal data is presented as Mean change (standard deviation), otherwise is Median change (interquartile range) (indicated by *). The mean difference (MD) between each dieteticled intervention arm (FB and ONS) and the SC arm has been calculated for normal data alongside 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), otherwise the Mann–Whitney U Test (indicated by **) has been used. Where sensitivity to change is suggested by the CI, the MD between the FB and ONS arms has then been calculated (final column)