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Table 1 Characteristics of trials led by the authors

From: Logistic, ethical, and political dimensions of stepped wedge trials: critical review and case studies

Lead author




Main outcome(s)

Interview number

De Allegri [14]

Burkina Faso

33 geographical rural and urban clusters

• Offer of community health insurance

Health service utilization


Dreischulte [17] (DQIP study)

United Kingdom

40 general practice surgeries in two Scottish health boards

• Each practice received a visit providing education on targeted prescribing and training in the use of an informatics tool

Composite measure of high-risk prescribing


• The informatics tool provided weekly updated feedback of targeted prescribing at practice level, prompting the review of individual clients affected, and summarising each patient’s relevant risk factors and prescriptions


• Payments for practices: a US $560 upfront incentive and US $24 for each client reviewed during the intervention


Killam [35]


Antenatal care clinics

• Antiretroviral therapy for HIV during antenatal care

Proportion of treatment-eligible women initiating antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy


Roy [58]

United Kingdom

Tuberculosis clinics in London

• Universal offer of HIV testing in tuberculosis clinics

Levels of HIV test offers, acceptance and coverage


Mouchoux [50] (CONFUCIUS study)


Three surgical wards

• Preoperative geriatric consultation

Postoperative delirium within seven days of surgery


• Training of ward staff and Hospital Elder Life Program

• Conferences about cases of delirium

Stringer [63] (BHOMA study)


Catchment areas of primary health care centres

• Implementation of clinical protocols, forms, and systems by Quality Improvement (QI) team in primary health centres.

Overall mortality


Under-five mortality

• Monitoring of care and mentoring facility staff to improve quality.

• Engagement of community health workers to refer and follow up clients.