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Table 3 Outcome and other measures

From: The effect of an information and communication technology (ICT) on older adults’ quality of life: study protocol for a randomized control trial

Outcome measures
Construct/Associated Hypothesis a Instrument Burden When Who
S B 6 12 18  
Primary outcome:
Quality of life: Global Mental Health and Global Physical Health/1 PROMIS Global Health [39] 10   X X X X OA
Secondary outcomes:         
Independence: Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs)/2 Getting to places outside the home, moving/walking around the home, taking your medications, planning and preparing meals, bathing and using the toilet, dealing with finances [53-55] 6   X X X X OA
Cost per Quality-Adjusted QALY: PROMIS Global Health converted to QALYs using EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) [40] 0   X X X X OA
Life Year (QALY)/3
Intervention cost: modified DATCAP [41] 0    X   X OA
Healthcare utilization: patient survey using modified medical services utilization form [43] 6   X X X X OA
Loneliness/4 UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) [56] 20   X X X X OA
Falls/5 Recent falls: # of falls; # requiring medical attention 2   X X X X OA
Falls risk: Falls Behavioral Scale for the Older Person (FaB) (modified) [57] 15   X X X X  
Medication management/6 Presence of risky medication: status of taking blood thinners, insulin, or oral medications for high blood sugar or diabetes [58] 3   X X X X OA
Medication adherence: to what extent would you estimate that you take your medication doses? 1   X X X X  
Medication side effects: presence or absence of common side effects of antiplatelets/anticoagulants and insulin/oral hypoglycemics [59] 18   X X X X  
Ease of driving and transportation/7 Ease of/comfort with transportation; # of crashes and near-misses 7 to 12   X X X X OA
Caregiver appraisal, burden, satisfaction with relationship, and mastery/8 Lawton Caregiving Appraisal Scale [60] 19   X X X X CG
Caregiver coping: wishfulness, acceptance, intra-psychic, instrumental/9 Caregiver Coping Strategies [61] 16   X X X X CG
Mediators: three constructs of self-determination theory Autonomy: Survey: How well do you carry out social activities and roles; do you currently drive? Elder Tree use data: # and extent of services used. 2   X X X X OA
Competence: Survey: To what extent can you carry out everyday activities; IADLs, comfort with technologies)? Elder Tree use data: # of informational pages and tips viewed. 3   X X X X OA
Relatedness: Survey: selected items from the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SS) (modified) [62] related to how often someone is there to provide support to and receive support from you, plus how often you have participated in a health or medical support group or social club or group? Elder Tree use data: # of emotionally supportive messages posted and read 17   X X X X OA
Other measures
Construct Instrument Burden When Who
S B 6 12 18  
Depression Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) [63] 8   X X X X OA
Living arrangement Setting (for example, own home/apartment); live alone or not [34] 2 X X X X X OA
Elder Tree system use Server log files: pages, minutes, services, engagement, patterns, comments, and so on 0   Constantly while participants use Elder Tree. OA
Comfort with technology Smartphone/tablet; desktop/laptop computer; Email; Facebook 4   X X X X OA
Physical limitations to technology use Auditory, visual, motor, other 1   X X X X OA
Measures related to other challenges
Challenge Construct Instrument Burden When Who
S B 6 12 18  
Social con-nectedness Online bonding CHESS Bonding Scale 4   X X X X OA
Size of social network # of people to listen to you, to whom you listen, from whom you get help, show love, get together to do something enjoyable 5   X X X X OA
Other support Types of therapy or support groups 6   X X X X OA
Service delivery Satisfaction with service delivery Showering/bathing/grooming; in-home meal prep or Meals on Wheels; toileting and incontinence; medical support services 4   X X X X OA
  1. aHypotheses: compared with the control group, at 6, 12, and 18 months, those randomized to Elder Tree will experience:
  2. 1. Improved quality of life (older adults).
  3. 2. Improved independence (older adults).
  4. 3. Lower healthcare cost per QALY (older adults).
  5. 4. Less loneliness (older adults).
  6. 5. Fewer falls (older adults).
  7. 6. Improved medication management (older adults).
  8. 7. Greater ease of transportation and driving (older adults).
  9. 8. Improved caregiver appraisal (caregivers).
  10. 9. Increased coping strategies (caregivers).
  11. Mediation hypothesis: SDT (autonomy, competence, relatedness) will mediate the effects of Elder Tree on older adult outcomes.
  12. S, screening; B, baseline; OA, older adult; CG, caregiver.
  13. CHESS, Center for Health Enhancement Systems Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, USA; DATCAP, Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program; MOS; Medical Outcomes Study; PROMIS, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System.