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Table 1 Clinical parameters and postoperative complications for analysis a

From: DRAPA trial – closed-suction drains versus closed gravity drains in pancreatic surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Parameters Definitions
Hospital stay Days from initial operation to hospital discharge plus any readmission within 30 days
Operating time Time from skin incision to wound closure (minutes)
Delayed gastric emptying Failure to resume solid diet with prolonged need for nasogastric tube as defined by ISGPS [40]
Biliary leak Bilirubin concentration in the drain fluid at least three times the serum bilirubin concentration as defined by ISGLS [38]
Postoperative haemorrhage Evidence of blood loss from drains and/or nasogastric tube, based on ultrasonography, as defined by ISGPS [41]
Intraabdominal fluid collection Collection of fluid measuring ≥3 cm associated with clinical or laboratory abnormalities
Symptomatic fluidothorax Fluid in the pleural cavity associated with respiratory distress or a need to evacuate the fluid
Abdominal rupture Dehiscence of abdominal closure with need for resuture of the laparotomy during the initial hospital stay
Myocardial infarction Increase of serum concentration of CK-MB and troponin and/or the following ECG changes: new Q waves ≥0.04 in duration, new persistent ST elevation and/or depression
Pneumonia Presence of a new infiltrate on chest X-ray, as well as the following: body temperature >38°C, abnormal elevation of WBC, or positive sputum, and requiring antibiotic treatment
Acute renal failure Serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dl and/or need for dialysis
Wound infection Surgical site infection associated with laparotomy that develops during the initial hospital stay
Urinary tract infection Culture-positive urine, pyuria or bacteriuria on urinalysis requiring antibiotic treatment
  1. aCK-MB, Creatine kinase MB isoenzyme; ECG, Electrocardiogram; ISGLS, International Study Group of Liver Surgery; ISGPS, International Study Group for Pancreatic Surgery; WBC, White blood cells.