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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study

From: Surgeon, staff, and patient radiation exposure in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: impact of 3D fluoroscopy-based navigation partially replacing conventional fluoroscopy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Age of at least 18 years Previous surgery in the index or adjacent level
Chronic low back pain (visual analogue scale at least 3 out of 10 at rest and at least 5 out of 10 under physical strain) after having failed conservative treatment for at least 3 months Indication for fusion of more than 2 levels
Indication for monosegmental or bisegmental minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion due to degenerative disc disease or instability, including spondylolisthesis according to Meyerding grade I and II within L2 and S1 Spondylodiscitis, traumatic instability, osteoporotic vertebral body fractures, neoplasm, or spondylolisthesis according to Meyerding grade III and IV of the index level(s)
  Spinal scoliosis with a Cobb angle of more than 10° in the index level(s)