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Table 2 Clavien-Dindo classification

From: Frequency of pneumothorax and haemothorax after primary open versus closed implantation strategies for insertion of a totally implantable venous access port in oncological patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Grade Definition
Grade I Any deviation from the normal post-operative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic or radiological interventions. Allowed therapeutic regimens are: drugs as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgesics, diuretics and electrolytes, and physiotherapy. This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside.
Grade II Requiring pharmacological treatment with drugs other than those allowed for grade I complications. Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition are also included.
Grade III Requiring surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention.
Grade IIIa Intervention not under general anaesthesia
Grade IIIb Intervention under general anaesthesia
Grade IV Life-threatening complication (including central nervous system complications)* requiring intensive care unit management
Grade IVa Single-organ dysfunction (including dialysis)
Grade IVb Multi-organ dysfunction
Grade V Death
Suffix ‘d’ If the patient is suffering from a complication at the time of discharge, the suffix ‘d’ (for ‘disability’) is added to the grade. This label indicates the need for follow-up to fully evaluate the complication.
  1. *including brain hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, subarachnoidal bleeding, but excluding transient ischemic attacks.