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Table 1 Definitions of peri- and post-operative complications

From: Frequency of pneumothorax and haemothorax after primary open versus closed implantation strategies for insertion of a totally implantable venous access port in oncological patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Complication Definition
Intra-operative lesion of nerves Clinical diagnosis and/or EMG findings
Dislocation of the catheter and/or the port chamber Radiological finding
Incompatibility of contrast agent Any allergic reaction against a contrast agent needing medical treatment with drugs
Thrombosis Sonographic findings and/or phlebography
Post-operative bleeding Clinical diagnosis during reoperation
Haematoma Clinical diagnosis, no reoperation necessary
Disconnection or breakage of the catheter Radiological findings, findings after explantation
Extravasation of injected fluid Radiological findings and/or clinical diagnosis
Wound infection Clinical diagnosis, wound has to be reopened and/or antibiotic treatment
Catheter sepsis Two or more of the following symptoms:
  Temperature over 38.3°C or under 36°C;
Heart rate over 90 beats per minute;
Respiration rate over 20 breaths per minute, PaCO2 < 32 mmHg (spontaneous breathing) or PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg (mechanical ventilation);
Total peripheral WBC count >12 G/L or WBC <4.0 G/L or >10% immature neutrophils (bands), regardless of total peripheral WBC count;
Plasma C-reactive protein >2 SD above normal value and positive findings in bacteriology of the port catheter pike
Cutaneous necrosis Clinical diagnosis and/or histological finding
Pinch-off phenomenon Radiological findings and/or clinical diagnosis
  1. EMG: electromyography; PaCO2: partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2: partial pressure of oxygen; FiO2: fraction of inspiratory oxygen; mmHg: millimetres of mercury; WBC: white blood cells.