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Table 1 Study outcomes for immune responses to various stimuli and for muscle adaptation to training

From: Immune Function and Muscle Adaptations to Resistance exercise in Older Adults: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Nutritional Supplement

Immune function Muscle adaptation
Blood measures Whole body measures
Antibody response to TDAP vaccine1 1-Repetition maximum strength5
Pro- and anti-inflammatory T-Cell population balance2 Thigh cross-sectional area (CT scan)
Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels2 6-minute walk and gait speed tests
Proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells3 Berg Balance Scale
C-Reactive Protein5 Timed Up and Go test
Muscle tissue measures Muscle tissue measures
Change in CD163+ Macrophages2, 5 Change in satellite cell numbers
Changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines2 Change in fiber size
Growth factor levels4 Nuclear addition to muscle fibers
NFkB, PI3 Kinase, FOXO, and STAT3 signaling pathways2  
  1. 1Humoral response to the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (TDAP) vaccine; 2Response to an unaccustomed bout of exercise; 3In vitro stimulation assay; 4Resting measure; 5Primary outcome measures used in power calculations while other outcomes are secondary.