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Table 1 General characteristics of the nine traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) constitutional types [3,13,14]

From: Population pharmacokinetic modeling of the Qishe pill in three major traditional Chinese medicine-defined constitutional types of healthy Chinese subjects: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

  General characteristics Physical characteristics Psychological characteristics Sign of health Sign of illness
Gentleness Yin-Yang balanced Full of vitality and well-proportioned Mild character Good cold and hot tolerance, sleep well, good appetite and no fatigue Less disease
Type A
Qi-deficiency* Insufficiency of primordial Qi Weakened muscle* No desire to speak Short of breath, listless and low voice and easy to sweat and fatigue Palpitations and influenza
Type B
Yang-deficiency More insufficiency of primordial Qi Slightly muscle atrophy More quiet and introverted Intolerance of cold, loose stool, clear abundant urine and easy to catch a cold Diarrhea
Type C
Yin-deficiency* Yin-fluid deficiency Slim body Quick-tempered Feverish palms and soles, dry mouth and throat, dry eyes, flushing cheek, and dry skin is usual Fatigue syndrome, muscle fatigue* and insomnia
Type D
Phlegm-wetness Body fluid stasis and phlegm-wetness aggregation Obese body with accumulate fat around abdomen Prudent Feeling body heaviness, chest distress and excessive phlegm, sticky mouth, and sticky sweating in usual Stroke and Diabetes
Type E
Wet-heat Internal accumulation of damp-heat Slim body Tend to be irritable likely to suffer from acne, thirsty, bad breath, bitter taste in the mouth in usual Constipation, scabies and jaundice
Type F
Blood-stasis* Poor blood circulation All body types Tend to be annoying and forgetful Frequent pain* and ecchymosis and gloomy complexion Chronic pain*
Type G
Qi-depression Depression and stagnation of Qi Slim body Depressive, sensitive and suspicious Frequently sigh, distention and pain in chest hypochondria
Type H
Special diathesis Special diathesis All body types All types Hypersensitiveness Asthma and urticaria
Type I
  1. *The three TCM constitutional types (Qi-deficiency, Yin-deficiency and Blood-stasis) have been selected in this trial.