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Table 2 Randomized controlled cross-over trials of exercise training in patients with impaired left ventricular function

From: Exercise training in heart failure

Authors n Exercise Program Outcome versus Control
Coats 1990, 1992 [10,12] ExT n = 17 Home-based 8 week Ex tolerance increased by 18.7% (P < 0.001)
   program. Cycle for 20 min Peak O2 uptake increased by 18.2% (P < 0.01)
   × 3/week at 60–80% Other physiological benefits included decreased ventilation
   max HR and improved heart rate variability
Adamopoulos 1993 [34] ExT n = 12 Home-based 8 week Reduced intramuscular phosphocreatine depletion and ADP
   program. Cycle for 20 min accumulation (P < 0.003)
   × 3/week at 60–80%  
   max HR  
Radaelli 1996 [35] ExT n = 6 Home-based 20 min cycle Peak VO2 increased by 15% (P < 0.05)
   × 5 days/week × 5 weeks Improved autonomic control of HR and peripheral vessels
Meyer 1997 [36] ExT n = 18 Interval cycle and treadmill Ex distance up 65% (P < 0.001)
   training for 3 weeks  
Tyni-Lenne 1997 [37] ExT n = 16 Knee extensor endurance Citrate synthase increased by 44% (P < 0.0001),
  (women) training for 8 weeks lactate dehydrogenase increased by 23% (P < 0.002),
    oxidative capacity in relation to glycolytic capacity increased
    by 23% (P < 0.002)
    Peak O2 uptake increased by 14% (P < 0.0005)
    Peak work rate increased by 43% (P < 0.0001)
    Increased distance ambulated during 6 min (P < 0.03)
    Improved overall (P < 0.01), physical (P < 0.05), and
    psychosocial (P < 0.03) health-related quality of life
Ohtsubo 1997 [38] ExT n = 7 Unilateral calf plantar flexion Smaller reduction in standardized intramuscular
   exercise phosphocreatine and intracellular pH after training (P < 0.05)
    New Borg scale improved (P < 0.05)
Taylor 1999 [39] ExT n = 8 Training 3/week × 8 weeks Ex time increased by 7.4%, peak O2 uptake increased by
    17.6% (P < 0.05), peak cardiac index increased by 10%
    (P < 0.05)
Owen 2000 [40] ExT n = 22 Training 1/week × 12 weeks Distance walked in 6 min increased by 20% (P < 0.012)
  elderly patients   
  (15 completed)   
Maiorana 2000 [41] ExT n = 13 Circuit weight training Peak O2 uptake increased by 11.8% (P < 0.01)
   program for 8 weeks Ex time increased by 18.4% (P < 0.01)
    Maximal skeletal muscle isotonic voluntary contractile strength
    increased by 17.9% (P < 0.001)
  1. ex=exercise, ExT=exercise training, HR=heart rate, peak O2 uptake=peak oxygen consumption, WL=work load