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Table 1 Randomized controlled parallel group trials of exercise training in patients with impaired left ventricular function

From: Exercise training in heart failure

Authors n Exercise Program Outcome versus Control
Jette 1991 [17] 1. LVEF < 30%   Control n = 10 Supervised in hospital for 4 weeks a.m. - run 5 min × 3/ LVEF < 30% group
  ExT n = 8   Peak VO2 increased by 221 ml/min (P < 0.05)
    Peak WL increased by 13 W (P < 0.05)
  2. LVEF 31–50% week at 70–80% max HR calisthenics 30 min cycle 15 min at 70–80% max HR p.m. - walk (graded paths) 30–60 min LVEF 31–50% group
  Control n = 10   Peak VO2 increased by 85 ml/min (P = NS)
  ExT n = 11   Peak WL increased by 9 W (P = NS)
Koch 1992 [15] 1. ExT n = 12 40 sessions over 90 days, graded program QOL score increased by 52% (P < 0.0001)
  2. Control n = 13   
Belardinelli 1992 [18] 1. ExT n = 10 Supervised 8 week program Cycle at 60% VO2peak × 3/week Ex tolerance increased by 45% (P < 0.005)
  2. Control n = 10   Peak O2 uptake increased by 20% (P < 0.001)
Kostis 1994 [19] 1. Placebo n = 6 12 week program Walk/row/cycle/stair climb 60 min × 3–5/week at 50–60% max HR Cognitive behavioral sessions Diet modification Ex tolerance increased by 182 s (P < 0.05)
  2. Digoxin n = 7   
  3. ExT n=7   
Kiilavuori 1995 [20] 1. ExT n = 8 Supervised for 3 months Cycle 30 min × 3/week at 50–60% max VO2 Ex tolerance increased by 71% at submaximal WL (P = 0.01)
  2. Control n = 12   High frequency component of HR variability increased by 22–55% during the day
    (P = 0.0001)
Hambrecht 1995 [21] 1. ExT n= 12 Supervised for 3 weeks 10 min × 6/day at 70% max VO2 then home-based until 6 months: cycle 40 min/day at 70% max VO2 walk/calisthenics/ball games 60 min × 2/week Peak VO2 increased by 12% (P < 0.001)
  2. Control n=10   Muscle mitochondria volume density increased (P < 0.05)
Belardinelli 1995 [22] 1. ExT n = 36 Supervised in hospital Calisthenics warm up 15 min × 3/week Cycle 40 min × 3/week at 60% max VO2 Peak VO2 increased by 12% (P < 0.001)
  2. Control n = 19   Improved indices of diastolic function
Hambrecht 1997 [23] 1. Ext n = 9 Supervised for 3 weeks 10 min × 6/day at 70% max VO2 then home-based until 6 months: cycle 40 min/day at 70% max VO2 walk/calisthenics/ball games 60 min × 2/week Enhanced oxidative enzyme activity and improved
  2. Control n= 9   mitochondrial size and number of cistae in skeletal muscle biopsies
Dubach 1997 [24] 1. ExT n = 12 Supervised for 8 weeks Walk 60 min × 2/day Cycle 40 min × 4/week at 80% max VO2 Peak VO2 uptake increased
  2. Control n = 13   Peak WL increased
    Ex time increased
Reinhart 1998 [25] n = 25 8 week residential program Cycle 40 min at 70–80% maximal exercise capacity × 4/week and walk 2 × 1 h/day Increased maximal cardiac output and peak O2 uptake
Wielanger 1998, 1. ExT n = 41 Supervised for 12 weeks 3 × 10 min cycle/walk/ball games 5 min rest Exercise at target heart rate (resting HR + 60% difference between resting and maximum HR) Feelings of being disabled decreased as shown by?
1999 [26,27] 2. Control n = 39   Self-Assessment of General Well-Being (SAGWB)
    Ex time increased by 21.4% (P < 0.0001)
    Anaerobic threshold increased by 12.5% (P < 0.05)
    Peak O2 uptake not significantly changed
Callaerts-Vegh 1. ExT n = 9 8 weeks intensive training Peak O2 uptake increased by 30.9%
1998 [28] 2. Control n = 8   Urinary nitrate elimination decreased in controls but unchanged in ExT group
Willenheimer 1998 [29] 1. ExT n = 22 Supervised for 16 weeks. Interval training: cycle 60 s at 80% VO2max then 30 s rest week 0–7 15 min × 2/week week 7–16 45 min × 3/week Peak ex WL increased by 7 W (P < 0.01)
  2. Control n = 27   
Belardinelli 1999 [16] 1. ExT n = 50 Supervised 8 week program Cycle at 60% VO2peak × 3/week Supervised 12 month maintenance program: 2 sessions/week: 20 min stretching exercises; 40 min cycle Peak O2 uptake increased by 18% at 2 months (P < 0.001)
  2. Control n = 49   Lower mortality (n=9 versus n = 20, RR=0.37; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.84; P = 0.01)
    Fewer hospital readmissions for heart failure (5 versus 14; RR=0.29; 95% CI,
    0.11 to 0.88; P = 0.02)
Sturm 1999 [30] n = 26 12 weeks of 50% maximal exercise capacity training progressing to 100 min step aerobics/week and 50 min cycle/week Peak O2 uptake increased by 23.3% (P = 0.001
    Peak WL increased by 26% (P = 0.0001)
Keteyian 1999 [31] 1. ExT n = 21 Warm up 5 min, cool down 11 min 33 min × 3/week at 60–80% max HR (11 min × 3 ergometers: cycle, row, arm, treadmill) × 24 weeks Peak O2 uptake increased (P < 0.05)
  2. Control n = 22   Improved chronotropic response to exercise
Quittan 1999 [32] 1. n = 25 Aerobics 3 h/week Improved QOL (P = 0.0001), physical role fulfillment (P = 0.001), physical (P = 0.02)
    and social (P = 0.0002) functioning
    Peak O2 uptake and ex time increased (P < 0.01)
Hambrecht 2000 [33] 1. ExT n = 36 2 weeks × 10 min cycle 4–6/week followed by 6 months home-based cycle × 20 min at 70% peak O2 uptake NYHA class improved
  2. Control n = 37   Ex time increased
    LVEF increased from 0.30 to 0.35 (P = 0.003)
    Peak ex TPR decreased (P = 0.003)
  1. ex=exercise, ExT=exercise training, HR=heart rate, LVEF=left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA=New York Heart Association functional class, peak O2 uptake=peak oxygen consumption, QOL=quality of life, RR=relative risk, TPR=total peripheral resistance, WL=work load