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Table 2 Selected simulation study results. C&J: Copas and Jackson bias bound approach

From: Application and investigation of a bound for outcome reporting bias

Odds ratio Sample size variability parameter Mean trial size n m True bias: median1 Difference between unsuppressed pooled and C&J-adjusted: median (2.5th, 97.5th) centiles Difference between unsuppressed pooled and maximum imputation-adjusted: median (2.5th, 97.5th) centiles
1 0.05 25 4 1 0.175 -0.059 (-0.170, 0.117) -0.142 (-0.334, 0.016)
1 0.05 25 3 2 0.345 -0.087 (-0.293, 0.228) -0.323 (-0.653, -0.053)
1 0.05 300 4 1 0.052 -0.014 (-0.048, 0.043)  
1 0.05 300 3 2 0.101 -0.021 (-0.084, 0.071)  
1 0.35 25 4 1 0.159 -0.055 (-0.161, 0.121) -0.146 (-0.371, 0.030)
1 0.35 25 3 2 0.317 -0.079 (-0.277, 0.220) -0.310 (-0.661, -0.051)
1 0.35 300 4 1 0.053 -0.015 (-0.049, 0.048)  
1 0.35 300 3 2 0.103 -0.021 (-0.087, 0.077)  
0.5 0.05 25 4 1 0.176 -0.043 (-0.159, 0.153) -0.236 (-0.437, -0.060)
0.5 0.05 25 3 2 0.343 -0.064 (-0.280, 0.277) -0.593 (-0.943, -0.300)
0.5 0.05 300 4 1 0.049 -0.013 (-0.047, 0.045)  
0.5 0.05 300 3 2 0.096 -0.019 (-0.082, 0.071)  
0.5 0.35 25 4 1 0.155 -0.066 (-0.199, 0.200) -0.358 (-0.650, -0.150)
0.5 0.35 25 3 2 0.314 -0.091 (-0.311, 0.307) -0.546 (-0.946, -0.245)
0.5 0.35 300 4 1 0.044 -0.020 (-0.060, 0.048)  
0.5 0.35 300 3 2 0.085 -0.031 (-0.104, 0.075)  
1 0.05 25 9 1 0.101 -0.030 (-0.080, 0.039) -0.056 (-0.125, 0.013)
1 0.05 25 5 5 0.479 -0.063 (-0.270, 0.198)  
1 0.05 300 9 1 0.031 -0.006 (-0.022, 0.019)  
1 0.05 300 5 5 0.138 -0.014 (-0.075, 0.063)  
1 0.35 25 9 1 0.101 -0.033 (-0.086, 0.059) -0.077 (-0.182, 0.011)
1 0.35 25 5 5 0.481 -0.068 (-0.274, 0.221)  
1 0.35 300 9 1 0.032 -0.007 (-0.025, 0.025)  
1 0.35 300 5 5 0.144 -0.015 (-0.080, 0.076)  
0.5 0.05 25 9 1 0.105 -0.019 (-0.072, 0.065) -0.126 (-0.206, -0.045)
0.5 0.05 25 5 5 0.477 -0.042 (-0.250, 0.239)  
0.5 0.05 300 9 1 0.030 -0.005 (-0.021, 0.019)  
0.5 0.05 300 5 5 0.130 -0.013 (-0.072, 0.063)  
0.5 0.35 25 9 1 0.102 -0.026 (-0.086, 0.083) -0.027 (-0.096, 0.071)
0.5 0.35 25 5 5 0.467 -0.062 (-0.281, 0.261)  
0.5 0.35 300 9 1 0.017 -0.017 (-0.036, 0.020)  
0.5 0.35 300 5 5 0.094 -0.043 (-0.110, 0.046)  
  1. 1 calculated as the median of the distribution of values across simulations for the difference between the pooled log(OR) from all n + m trials and the pooled log(OR) based on the selected trials