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Table 2 Exclusion criteria

From: Yoga vs. physical therapy vs. education for chronic low back pain in predominantly minority populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Exclusion criteria Rationale
Significant participation in yoga or physical therapy in the previous 6 months Possible bias, confounding, or residual treatment effect
Has read The Back Pain Helpbook or The Back Book in the previous 6 months
Has previously participated in our yoga or physical therapy studies
New chronic low back pain (cLBP) treatments started within the previous month or anticipated to begin in the next 12 months
Inability to understand English at a level necessary to understand treatment instructions and survey questions Condition would make it difficult for fully informed consent and to follow intervention instructions
Known pregnancy Pregnancy-related low back pain is different in etiology and time course than the target condition for the study, i.e., non-specific cLBP
Active or planned worker’s compensation, disability, or personal injury claims Medico-legal concerns may bias participants’ incentive to improve or bias reporting of outcomes
Spinal canal stenosis Back pain possibly due to, specific disease/condition(s)
Severe scoliosis
Spondylolisthesis
Ankylosing spondylitis
Large herniated disk
Sciatica pain equal to or greater than back pain
Previous back surgery
History of vertebral fracture
Active or recent malignancy
Active or recent constitutional symptoms
Rheumatoid arthritis Condition may overlap with symptoms of back pain and/or confound treatment effects
Severe fibromyalgia
Other severe disabling chronic medical and/or psychiatric comorbidities deemed by the principal investigator on a case-by-case basis to prevent safe and/or adequate participation in the study (e.g., severe disabling heart failure or lung disease, active treatment for hepatitis B/C, psychosis) Comorbid condition(s) that may pose inappropriate risk to safety or preclude compliance with interventions
Severe or progressive neurological deficits
Active substance or alcohol abuse
Plans to move out of the area in the next 12 months Known barrier to full study participation
Perceived religious conflict with the yoga intervention
Lack of consent Research policy