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Table 1 Inclusion criteria

From: Yoga vs. physical therapy vs. education for chronic low back pain in predominantly minority populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria Rationale
18 to 64 years old Chronic low back pain in older adults is more likely to have specific causes (e.g., spinal canal stenosis)
Current non-specific low back pain persisting ≥12 weeks Condition studied is specifically chronic
Mean low back pain intensity for the previous week ≥4 on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale (0 = no pain to 10 = worst possible pain) Back pain severe enough to detect improvement and prevent against floor effects
English fluency sufficient to follow treatment instructions and answer survey questions Fully informed consent and data collection
Willingness to list comprehensive contact information for at least one (preferably two) friend, family member, or work colleague who will always know how to contact the participant Minimize loss to follow-up