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Table 5 Food habits assessed at baseline and at the end of the study in the intervention and control groups

From: A primary-school-based study to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity – the EdAl (Educació en Alimentació) study: a randomized controlled trial

  Intervention group Control group  
  Baseline (%) End of study (%) P Value Baseline (%) End of study (%) P value Intervention vs control ( P value)
Krece plus questionnaire        
Breakfast 99.2 98.2 0.11 99.8 99.2 0.18 0.50
Dairy product at breakfast 91.9 92.3 0.72 95.4 93.0 0.08 0.09
Cereals at breakfast 68.3 72.9 0.01 74.8 74.5 0.89 0.13
Pastry at breakfast 17.5 15.3 0.17 16.2 15.1 0.62 0.70
Daily fruit or natural juice 70.9 72.9 0.30 78.1 78.9 0.95 0.59
Fruit, second per day 38.3 42.6 0.03 38.4 37.6 0.78 0.14
Dairy product, second per day 81.9 80.6 0.43 85.9 84.2 0.4 0.81
Vegetables, daily 68.9 72.6 0.04 72.7 73.8 0.67 0.42
Vegetables, >1 per day 25.7 32.0 0.001 23.2 26.9 0.13 0.50
Fish, regularly 73.9 74.8 0.65 76.10 74.3 0.4 0.35
Fast food, >1 per week 7.9 8.9 0.41 7.9 8.7 0.63 0.92
Legumes >1 per week 75.5 75.2 0.85 76.9 70.9 0.01 0.06
Candy >1 per day 12.9 12.0 0.52 11.6 9.9 0.32 0.68
Pasta or rice, daily 57.3 57.9 0.80 59.9 62.2 0.37 0.58
Cooking with olive oil at home 96.6 97.4 0.32 97.1 97.9 0.38 0.85
AVall questionnaire        
Before leaving home        
Dairy products 84.3 82.4 0.20 86.6 83.8 0.15 0.65
Pastry 3.9 2.4 0.005 2.8 2.6 0.15 0.50
Cereals 37.6 38.2 0.87 38.4 39.7 0.83 0.94
Fresh fruit or natural juice 20.9 20.6 0.07 18.8 18.5 0.21 0.93
Sandwich 23.9 25.2 0.45 19.1 22.1 0.93 0.69
Juice packaged/soft drinks 9.6 7.2 0.93 8.4 8.9 0.32 0.46
Break (Midmorning)        
Dairy products 17.3 12.7 0.79 13.7 10.1 0.29 0.51
Pastry 3.8 1.7 <0.001 4.1 2.2 0.002 0.95
Cereals 6.5 5.6 0.68 5.2 4.7 0.45 0.71
Fresh fruit or natural juice 12.5 12.7 0.59 12.2 15.5 0.05 0.18
Sandwich 45.5 49.2 0.09 43.3 48.3 0.08 0.71
Juice packaged/soft drinks 11.4 6.1 0.67 9.9 12.8 0.48 0.41
  1. The parent or guardian completed a self-reported form at school, which included Krece Plus Questionnaire regarding nutritional habits [21] and AVall Questionnaire regarding lifestyles [22]; this included food items consumed at breakfast (before leaving home and midmorning). This questionnaire was filled in by parents twice during the study (at baseline and at the end of the study).