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Table 1 Current available pharmacological treatment and side effects for early and late Parkinson’s disease a,b

From: Smartphone- and internet-assisted self-management and adherence tools to manage Parkinson’s disease (SMART-PD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (v7; 15 August 2014)

Therapy Risk of side effects
Motor complications Other side effects
Adjuvant therapy for early PD   
  Levodopa ↑** ↑***
  Dopamine agonists
  MAO-B inhibitors
  β-adrenergic antagonists Lack of evidence
  Amantadine Lack of evidence
  Anticholinergics Lack of evidence
  Modified-release levodopa
Adjuvant therapy for late PD   
  Dopamine agonists
  MAO-B inhibitors
  COMT inhibitors
  Amantadine
  Apomorphine
  Modified-release levodopa
  1. a Adapted from National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) [9]. bCOMT, Catechol-O-methyltransferase; MAO-B, Monoamine oxidase B; PD, Parkinson’s disease. ↑** Evidence of increased motor complications/other adverse events. ↓*** Evidence of reduced motor complications/other adverse events.