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Table 2 Assessment instruments and procedures

From: Prevention of low back pain: effect, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility of maintenance care – study protocol for a randomized clinical trial

Time Instruments Detailed description
First visit/baseline 1 EQ-5D Self-rated health [38]
MPI-S Psychological profile [4345]
NRS-11 Pain intensity last 24 hours [41, 42]
Descriptive data (subject) Pregnancy (yes/no)
Year of birth
Pain in low back (yes/no)
Pain in leg (yes, thigh only/yes, thigh and shin/no)
Previously visited chiropractor (no/yes, more than 3 months ago/yes, less than 3 months ago)
Past episodes of LBP (yes/no)
Days in total with LBP during past year (<30/≥30)
Pain in cervical or thoracic spine (no/yes, ≥30 days past year/yes, <30 days past year)
Access to mobile phone (yes/no)
Ability to send SMS text messages (yes/no)
Belief in chance of improvement by treatment (NRS-11 varying from no chance to very probable)
Subjective perception of health in general (5-step scale, perfect, very good, good, fair, poor)
Baseline 2, fourth visit or earlier if indicated NRS-11 Pain intensity last 24 hours [41, 42]
Descriptive data (subject) Subjective perception of health in general (5-step scale, perfect, very good, good, fair, poor)
Descriptive data (clinician) Clinician’s expectations concerning the response to preventive treatment
Study start (When next visit can be scheduled at least one month ahead) RMDQ Self-rated disability [40]
Descriptive data (subject) Sex (man/woman)
Year of birth
Profession (physically heavy labor/interchanging between heavy and light/ standing and walking/sitting)
Self-reported work absence Sick leave during past year (no/yes, 1–7 days in total/yes, 8–14 days in total/yes, ≥15 days in total)
Descriptive data (clinician) Type of treatment so far (manipulation, mobilization, activator, drop/soft tissue treatment/information, recommendations/other, as described by the chiropractor)
Number of treatments during the past episode
Random allocation
Study period Weekly data collection for 52 weeks collected with SMS (text messages) “How many days during the previous week has your low back pain been bothersome (i.e., affected your daily activities or routines)? Please answer with a number between 0 and 7” (requiring an answer between 0–7, sent in a reply text message [35, 36])
Follow-up after 12 months EQ-5D Self-rated health [38]
RMDQ Self-rated disability [40]
NRS-11 Pain intensity last 24 hours [41, 42]
Descriptive data (subject) Other treatment in the past year? If yes, which type (physiotherapist, other chiropractor, medical doctor, medication, other)?/No
Treatment value: considering economy, time consumption, LBP, function, quality of life, is the treatment worth continuing with? (5-step scale, definitely worth it, possibly worth it, equivocal, hardly worth it, definitely not worth it)
Subjective perception of health in general (5-step scale, perfect, very good, good, fair, poor)
Self-reported work absence Sick leave during past year (no/yes, 1–7 days in total/yes, 8–14 days in total/yes, ≥15 days in total)
Modified WPAI-LBP Work productivity (How much has your low back pain affected your productivity during the past month, while at work? NRS-11 varying from LBP did not affect my work to LBP completely prevented me from working)
Descriptive data (clinician) Number of treatments including date
Type of treatment so far (manipulation, mobilization, activator, drop/soft tissue treatment/information, recommendations/other, as described by the chiropractor)
Reported side-effects (local soreness, fatigue, new radiating pain, other) including duration
  1. EQ-5D, EuroQol 5 Dimensions; LBP, Non-specific low back pain; MPI-S, Multidimensional pain inventory, Swedish version; NRS-11, Numerical rating scale (11 steps, 0–10); RMDQ, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire; WPAI-GH, Work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire – general health.