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Table 1 Eligibility screening

From: Prevention of low back pain: effect, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility of maintenance care – study protocol for a randomized clinical trial

Inclusion criteria

Exclusion criteria

Baseline 1

Age 18 to 65 years


LBP with or without leg pain for more than 30 days during the past year

Chiropractic treatment less than 3 months ago

Previous episodes

Completely subsidized treatment from third party payer

Access to a mobile phone

Serious pathology (i.e., acute trauma, cancer, infection, cauda equina, osteoporosis, vertebral fractures) or contraindications to manual therapy

Ability to send and receive SMS (text messages)

Baseline 2

Self-rated “definitely improved” by the fourth treatment

Self-rated improvement being anything but “definitely improved” by the fourth treatment

Study start

Interval between treatments is one month or more

Interval between treatments never extends to one month

  1. LBP, Non-specific low back pain.