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Table 3 Confounder measurements

From: Evidence-based new service package vs. routine service package for smoking cessation to prevent high risk patients from cardiovascular diseases (CVD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial

Confounder Variables How to measure
Demographic characteristics Age, sex, social status, family size, educational attainment, occupational history, income Questionnaire
Lifestyle Alcohol consumption, physical activity Questionnaire
Genetic factor Family history of diabetes, hypertension and CVD Questionnaire
Drugs Different medications for diabetes and hypertension Clinical record
Health literacy [29] A scale of five questions Questionnaire of Ishikawa’s scale [29]
Family support A scale of 16 questions Questionnaire
Physical activity RAPA scale [30] Questionnaire